Piston Aviation LLC Operations Manual and Contract
Flight Operations Manual & Contract - Version 6 - updated 11/20/2023
Safety Procedures and Practices
Creve Coeur Airport (1HO)
14201 Creve Coeur Airport Rd.
FAA Part 61
Version 6 Updates:
3.8.1 N374EA at a 1.15 Factor
3.8.1 N5714F Factor Increased from 1.o to 1.1
4.11 N374EA Call Sign Added
Version 5 Updates:
3.8.1 Base Aircraft Rental Rate Increased from $175/Hr to $189/Hr.
3.8.1 Pay as you Fly Rate Added
3.8.1 New Scheduling and Flight Time overage policy outlined
3.8.1 The Factor Rate for N33DH Increased from 1.0 to 1.1
9.5.1 Added 9.5.1 "Pay as you Go" Flight and Instructor Hour Refund Policy
9.5.2 Added 9.5.2 Block Hour Refund Policy
9.5.3 Added 9.5.3 Training Package Refund Policy
9.8 Accelerated Program Refund Policy Updated
9.9 Refund Policy for Pay as you Go Customers added
9.10 Added 9.10 Rental Membership Policies
Added Chapter 10 Media Release
Changed Chapter 10 COVID-19 Policy to Chapter 11 COVID-19 Policy
Version 4 Updates:
Sections 9.6 and 9.7 added pertaining to Meritize Student Loan Financing Refund Policies
Section 9.7 changed to 9.8
Version 3 Updates:
3.8.1 Base Aircraft Rental Rate Increased from $169/Hr to $175/Hr, Due to Fuel Cost and Insurance Rate Increases
9.4 Rental Hour Fixed Rate Period Changed from 24 months to 12 months
9.4 amended to allow for more flexible hour purchasing options after the initial hour purchase.
220.127.116.11 Non Refundable Portion of Packages remains same but wording of Section has changed to provide better explanation
18.104.22.168 Refund Timeline Defined
22.214.171.124 Refund Timeline Defined
126.96.36.199 & 188.8.131.52 changed to 184.108.40.206 and 220.127.116.11 respectively
18.104.22.168 Now defines refund policy for payments made using online credit issuers.
22.214.171.124 & 126.96.36.199 changed to 188.8.131.52 and 184.108.40.206 respectively
220.127.116.11 Now defines refund policy for payments made using online credit issuers.Dear :
Welcome to Piston Aviation LLC (Piston Aviation). The management and professional staff of Piston Aviation would like to wish each of you a safe and successful aviation career and experience.
Piston Aviation is committed to providing a safe and resourceful environment for our students to learn and train and our employees to work and advance. Accomplishing this goal requires a strong partnership and the participation of everyone involved. Safety policies and procedures have been developed and disseminated to ensure that every available effort is being made towards creating a SAFE, FUN and accident-free flight training environment. Courtesy, respect, situational awareness and a high degree of motivation are fundamentals to our success. We are striving to provide excellence and a personal touch to our flight training for our students.
This flight operations publication contains regulations and safety policies and procedures concerning all aspects of our flight operations and training. Material contained within this manual applies to all flight students, renters, and staff conducting flight training in our aircraft and flight simulators. Failure to comply with the content of this manual will result in disciplinary action or suspension from the flight program. In addition to the policies and procedures set within this manual, flight students and staff must adhere to the provisions contained in the school’s respective FAA approved Training Course Outlines (TCOs), specific pilot operating handbooks (POHs), aircraft maneuvers manuals, Federal Aviation Administration Regulations (14 CFRs) and aircraft checklists.
The flight operations employees, renters, and students are required to be fully aware and compliant with all regulations and safety policies and procedures outlined within this manual and any revisions to be provided by the General Manager.
It is the responsibility of all flight operations employees, renters, and students to notify the General Manager of any errors or omissions within this manual. Suggested changes or revisions may be submitted in writing. Requested deviations from this manual may be approved by the General Manager or his or her designee.
We wish you every success in your academic work, your flight training and your experience at Piston Aviation LLC
Joseph V. Ord
Pilot and Founder
Welcome to Piston Aviation. The staff of the Flight Department wishes each of you a safe and fulfilling aviation career. Section 1 describes the flight training program at Piston Aviation, including testing, grading, and course completion procedures.
All flight training is overseen by the Chief Flight Instructor and Assistant Chief Flight Instructor who are responsible for all flight courses. Students should become familiar with their flight instructor (CFI) and Chief Flight Instructor early in each course and look to him or her to answer any question or resolve any problems which may occur. The Chief Flight Instructor is responsible for all facets of the flight training program and is available to assist students when needed.
In addition to the policies and procedures contained herein, all flight training must be conducted in accordance with Piston Aviation’s FAA approved Training Course Outlines, Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), the specific Flight Maneuvers Procedures, the specific Pilot Operating Handbooks, Aircraft Flight Manuals, Checklists, and any other policies of Piston Aviation.
All pilots should review this Flight Operations Manual and supplemental documents as a normal preflight activity and prior to any flight training. In addition, all pilots must have a Personal Limitation Checklist completed on file, a copy of which can be found in Appendix A.
Compliance with the rules and policies stated in these manual and other documents stated above is mandatory. Failure to comply may result in disciplinary action, which may include removal from the current Flight Training Course, or removal of Rental privileges.
1.2 Lesson Preparation
The student, as well as the CFI, is obligated to adequately prepare for training activities. Students are encouraged to use all flight related resources.
Piston Aviation encourages the use of self directed online Ground Schools. Students should use provided Gleim Course work materials and the online ground school to prepare for flights. If the student needs help understanding in the course work, he or she should schedule a ground session with their CFI.
When a student comes to Piston Aviation from another Flight Training operation, they will be required to complete at least two Dual Flights (with a Piston Aviation CFI) to assess the skill level of the student pilot and the proper placement within the Piston Aviation Flight Training Program.
It is Piston Aviation’s goal to provide the highest quality instruction and services. All CFI’s, Mechanics, and Representatives will conform to the Piston Aviation Employee Handbook and Personnel and Policy Manual.
The Chief Flight Instructor is recognized by the FAA as the person responsible for all matters pertaining to the safety and training of all students, as well as the safety and operation of all renter pilots. It is the duty of the Chief Flight Instructor to be available at the flight facility or by telephone during all hours when flight training operations are taking place. As a FAA Part 61 Flight School, Piston Aviation does not currently have a Chief Flight Instructor.
The CFI is always the student’s immediate contact for all issues and problems that may arise. The CFI can be reached by Phone, text or email. If in the event the CFI is not immediately available for any reason a message can be left for the CFI upon their arrival to Piston Aviation.
1.5 Evaluation of Students
The Student’s assigned CFI will determine the preparedness of each student on an individual basis, and make all decisions on training advancement through the Phases of the Piston Aviation training programs.
1.6 Airman Certification and/or Rating Application (IACRA) System
For all student pilots, written test applicants, and practical tests, the FAA’s web-based Integrated Airman Certification and/or Rating system (IACRA) is used for processing airman application(s). This paperless application system allows for the immediate issuance of the appropriate documentation depending upon the outcome of the practical test and greatly reduces the time the FAA needs to issue a permanent certificate since the IACRA system sends an applicant’s application (FAA form 8710-1) immediately to Oklahoma City via the internet.
All students and CFI’s must register on the FAA IACRA website in order to utilize this system. To register, go the following website: https://iacra.faa.gov/iacra/
The system will then assign you an FTN (FAA Tracking Number). In addition, you must create a username and password. Please record your FTN, username, and password in a safe place (i.e. logbook) for future reference. You will be required to provide this information to generate and submit airman applications and conduct practical tests.
1.7 Student/CFI assignments
The assignment of a CFI to a student will primarily be based on three factors.
CFI Re-assignments may occur for the following reasons.
Piston Aviation will identify a CFI for reassignment based upon student/CFI availability and the student’s history in the course. If delays in reassignment are anticipated, Piston Aviation will notify the student and give a reasonable estimate when a CFI will be available. Once a CFI has been identified, a Piston Aviation representative will meet with both the current and new CFI simultaneously to discuss student status, progress in the course, etc.
A Piston Aviation Representative will coordinate a common meeting time with the student and the new CFI to answer any questions the student or new CFI may have. In the case of multiple student reassignments from one CFI to another and a common meeting time cannot be established, Piston Aviation will contact each student by telephone, text and/or e-mail to prevent delays in training.
1.8 Required Documents
For all training except sport pilot training, prior to flight training all students must obtain an FAA Class III or higher medical certificate. The student must complete all paperwork as required by Piston Aviation. This includes proof of citizenship endorsement as required by the Transportation and Security Administration (TSA) or the Alien Flight Students Program (AFSP) for non US citizens seeking a Sport Pilot, Private Pilot, or Instrument Rating.
In addition, all students are required to purchase the required materials for the course in which they are enrolled.
1.9 Aircraft Maintenance Records
Aircraft maintenance records for each aircraft utilized by the flight school, are kept electronically through Sky List Pro and hard copy is located in the main office of Piston Aviation. Aircraft maintenance records are kept up to date by maintenance department staff and are accessible during normal business hours. Aircraft records may be accessed and reviewed at any time during normal business hours by Piston Aviation employees, flight instructors, customers with aircraft rental privileges, FAA personnel, or designated pilot examiners. Aircraft maintenance records may also be accessed and reviewed outside of normal business hours by appointment. The removal of maintenance records from the main office is prohibited unless the aircraft maintenance record sign-out procedure is followed.
The removal of aircraft maintenance records from the maintenance office is only permitted under the following circumstances:
An Aircraft Maintenance Record Sign-out sheet is located near the cabinet that stores all company aircraft maintenance records. A line entry must be completed properly and entirely prior to the removal of any record from the Maintenance Office. Failure to properly sign out a maintenance record prior to removing it from the maintenance office is a violation of Piston Aviation company policy and in some cases could be considered a violation of FAA regulations or federal law. Each maintenance record shall be returned to office as soon as practicable and within 24 hours of its removal; removing a maintenance record for more than 24 hours requires additional approval by the Director of Maintenance. Failure or inability to completely return any maintenance record, or any damage or loss of a maintenance record must be immediately reported to the Chief Flight Instructor, or director of maintenance. Upon return of a borrowed maintenance record, the person responsible for that record shall return it directly to a maintenance department employee and verify that the return is properly indicated on the sign-out sheet. Responsibility of the custody and for the proper return of a borrowed maintenance record cannot be transferred; the person that signed out the maintenance record is directly responsible for its return.
Instructions on how to properly complete the sign out sheet are located next to the sign out sheet in the Main Office.
1.10 English Language Standards
In accordance with the current version of Advisory Circular 60-28 all students and renters must be English Proficient. It is up to the CFI performing the aircraft checkout or training to determine if the Student or Renter meets the English Proficient definition as outlined in the above referenced advisory circular. Student pilots who do not meet this standard must be referred to the local Flight Standards District Office for evaluation.8
Chapter 2-Aviation Safety
The primary philosophy of the Aviation Safety Program is one of accident prevention, education, research, and communication. The Aviation Safety Program also supports provisions for accident response and investigation when needed. The Aviation Safety Program is administered by the head of Piston Aviation, Joseph Ord.
2.2 Hazard Identification Program
The Hazard Identification Program is the foundation for accident prevention and safety awareness. The Hazard Identification Program has been designed to promote identification of actual or potential hazards. The effectiveness of this program depends on the free, unrestricted flow of information from everyone including CFI’s, students, staff and maintenance personnel. Hazard reports provide a method by which Piston Aviation can track potentially hazardous occurrences. All hazard reports submitted, via the “Flight Operation Incident Reporting Form”, will be placed into the Safety Reporting System Database. The hard copy of each report will be kept on file. Personal identification on the form is optional, however, if feedback is requested it will be necessary. Any safety concern, even those which seem insignificant should be documented. Forms are available in the F.B.O / Flight Lounge. They have been designed to be simple and take only minutes to fill out. Once complete, the Hazard Report should be submitted to a Piston Aviation Representative via e-mail or online form submission. Participation in this program (by everyone) is critical to the safety of our flight environment.
2.3 Dissemination of Safety Related Information
There will be monthly Safety Meetings at which all CFI’s will be briefed on any relevant safety issues at this time and are required to pass this information on to their students. Similar meetings will be held each month with line and Piston Aviation Management personnel in order to pass similar information along.
3.1 Sky List Pro
Sky List Pro is a web-based system used for scheduling, logging and planning all flight activities for Piston Aviation. It is the responsibility of all students and CFI’s to register for the Piston Aviation online scheduling program in order to keep track of all activities. Instructions on how to use it will be provided by the Piston Aviation Staff.
No person may schedule or conduct a rental or any kind of training session unless their Sky List Pro account is completed. Each customer must have completed their user profile, have an emergency contact on file, a valid photo ID, Medical Certificate if required, Pilot Certificate, and in the preceding year have signed an Aircraft Rental Agreement and have a current Personal Limitations Checklist on file.
All training/rental activities (flight, orals, ground training sessions and observer flights) will be scheduled according to the student’s agreed upon flight block and any additional availability provided, or as requested by the renter. It is the student’s responsibility to inform his/her CFI of any changes in their availability.
All scheduling is done on a 1st come, first serve basis, with the following priorities applied.
Customers are personally responsible for checking the schedule daily and being present for their lesson or rental at the scheduled time. If the activity time is misunderstood or is mistakenly related over the phone, either of which results in a student no-show, the responsibility rests with the scheduled student.
CFI's are required to schedule regularly within the student’s agreed upon flight block and within any additional availability in order to maintain continuity of training. Delays in training have caused many students thousands of dollars of extra costs in completing a flight course. Therefore, strict scheduling, cancellation, no-show, and grounding policies are enforced.
CFI’s are required to schedule within the following guidelines:
3.3 Extended Leaves
If a student is planning on being gone for an extended period of time, it is his/her responsibility to make sure they cancel any previously scheduled flight times or rentals during that time period. Any scheduled flight that remains on the schedule during a student or renter's leave, will result in a no-show.
3.4 Schedule Modifications
Upon mutual agreement between the CFI and student, the CFI can check aircraft availability for a particular time. If there is an aircraft available, the CFI may schedule aircraft for that time frame.
The flight schedule is considered firm at 1700 on the day before the activity. The Customer may cancel a scheduled activity for a LEGITIMATE REASON. Students must inform their CFI of any necessary upcoming schedule irregularities as soon as possible to preclude a cancellation or no-show.
3.6 No Shows (Unexcused Absence)
Pilots must use and manage time effectively. Resources of Piston Aviation must be used to maximize service to all customers of Piston Aviation. Therefore, the following no-show policy is in effect. Customers will check in for all activities no later than 5 minutes prior to the scheduled departure time.
If, for a medical reason a customer feels unfit to fly, the customer shall contact the main office of Piston Aviation and their CFI, if applicable. In addition to impacting the continuity of training and proficiency, no-shows are costly to Piston Aviation due to under-utilization of resources. Therefore, a no-show penalty will be assessed for each no-show activity. For flight lessons or rentals you will be billed for one hour of Flight Instruction and for one half (50%) of the standard rate of the aircraft to be used.
CFI’s will be no-showed if they fail to arrive by the scheduled activity time. If circumstances beyond the control of the CFI, such as in-flight weather or mechanical difficulties away from base, cause the CFI to be late, they will notify the main office of Piston Aviation as soon as SAFELY possible.
Customers who are no-showed will receive notifications as soon as practical, either via email, text or telephone call to the customer. The customer can appeal the no-show up to 7 days from the date of the no-show in writing to management.
For Flight Lessons or rentals you will be billed for one hour of Flight Instruction and for one hour of half the standard rate for the airplane you scheduled in at the currently published rates. For Ground Lessons you will be billed for one hour of Flight Instruction.
If you arrive 30 minutes or later than your scheduled block, your plane may be dispatched to another pilot. If the plane is dispatched to you, please make sure you return by the end of your block so the next rental pilot will not be inconvenienced.
All decisions to excuse a no show must be approved by Piston Aviation Management
3.7 Grounding (Excused Absence)
Customers may be prohibited from participating in Piston Aviation flight activities for financial, operational, or medical reasons. Prohibition of flight activities for any reason is referred to as grounded (absent from the schedule) for more than 30 consecutive days.
Financial Grounding - Customers will be grounded for failing to settle an account.
Operational Grounding - Customers and CFI’s will be grounded for violations of any FAA regulations or any Piston Aviation operating policy until the situation has been resolved. Any customer or CFI who is involved in an aircraft accident or incident will be grounded. This grounding does not assign the blame to any particular party, but is a precautionary grounding until the cause has been determined.
Medical Grounding - If, for medical reasons a student feels unfit to fly, the student shall contact their CFI at least 15 minutes prior to the activity. If the CFI is unreachable the student shall contact the main office of Piston Aviation and leave a voicemail if the phone is unanswered. If this procedure is not followed, the no-show petition will not be signed by the CFI or Piston Aviation Representative. When the student feels well enough to resume flight activities, they must inform their CFI to be removed from the grounded status.
3.8 Aircraft Rental
Piston Aviation offers the rental of aircraft for the purpose of maintaining
proficiency/currency. All renter flights must comply with FAA and Piston Aviation regulations, and the provisions of the Piston Aviation Aircraft Rental Agreement. Except in the case of aircraft rented for the purpose of taking an FAA check ride, aircraft rentals will not be scheduled or reserved since flight training activities have priority. Aircraft rented for flights outside the local area or to a distant airport must be specifically approved by the Management of Piston Aviation or his or her designee if to an airport not in the approved list as found in section 8.9 of this manual.
Renting a Piston Aviation Aircraft for Flights into IMC is currently not allowed under any circumstance even if the renting pilot is IFR rated.
Aircraft can be rented for flights that will require an overnight stay. However, the aircraft must be flown for a minimum of 3 hours per a day for each day after the first day or a minimum of 4 hours per day on weekends and holidays.
Overnight flights must be booked a minimum of 14 days in advance.
All customers and employees are eligible to rent aircraft. Those desiring to rent aircraft must be standardized and current in the make and model of the aircraft being rented.
No customer may allow a pilot who is not approved by Piston Aviation to pilot the aircraft as PIC at anytime. Flight instruction by a CFI who is not an employee of Piston Aviation is strictly prohibited in Piston Aviation airplanes and can result in loss of rental privileges.
Stalls and Emergency Procedures are strictly prohibited from being conducted without a Piston Aviation approved CFI on board.
At the conclusion of the rental a customer will provide Piston Aviation with a copy of any receipt for fuel and will have an invoice e-mailed to them for immediate payment by Credit Card or ACH for no fees. If the invoice is not paid by the end of the business day Piston Aviation will process the credit card on file and add the processing fee. Any time a Piston Aviation employee processes a Credit Card a 3% fee will be added to each invoice.
Piston Aviation Rental Rates are “Wet” rates so any fuel receipts presented will be deducted from the final invoice up to the current Per Gallon 100LL rate being charged at Piston Aviation’s Home Airport, Creve Coeur Airport - 1H0
3.8.1 Rental Rates
Piston Aviation LLC sets a Baseline Rental Rate for all Aircraft, which is the minimum rental rate at which all pricing is set.
As of the Date of your viewing of this document, the Baseline Rental Rate is:
"Wet" means fuel from the aircrafts home base of 1H0 is included. if fuel is required on a flight from another airfield, you will be reimbursed at the price per gallon, that 1H0 is charging at the time of purchase.
"Pay as you Fly" Rate: The Pay as you Go Rate is the Baseline Rental Rate.
All Hours must be pre-purchased prior to Flight. This can be done through Piston Aviation's Online Scheduler. A minimum of 2 Flight Hours is required to be on a customer's account to be able to schedule a flight. Flight Hour Usage is based on Aircraft Hobbs Time. Unused flight hours will remain in customer's account for use on future Flights. Flight Time usage based on aircraft Hobbs time that goes over clients account balance will be immediately invoiced to client at the "Pay as you Fly" rate.
A specific aircraft is given a factor rate based on cost of operation, that will be multiplied by the number of Hobbs hours used during a flight to determine the cost of the rental time used.
Current Factor Rates of Piston Aviation Aircraft:
Example Calculation: The Bristell (N445LM) is rented for a flight of 1.3 hours, the renter has pre purchase a block of 5 flight hours.
1.3 is multiplied by 1.1, so total of 1.43 hours will be counted against the block of 5 pre-purchased hours.
5-1.43 = 3.57 = Hours remaining for Renter to use
Piston Aviation LLC reserves the right to change the baseline rental rate and Aircraft Factor Rates without notice.
3.9 Liability for Damage to Aircraft
The pilot-in-command is responsible for his/her aircraft from the time the aircraft is released by Piston Aviation until the aircraft is returned, final Hobbs time is recorded and Flight time is paid for if Student or Renter is not Prepaid. Any damage occurring to an aircraft is to be reported in accordance with paragraph 4.4 of this manual. Persons damaging aircraft may, at the discretion of Piston Aviation, be held liable monetarily for repairs required due to damage if in the opinion of Piston Aviation the damage occurred because of improper procedures, failure to adhere to the rules and regulations of Piston Aviation, failure to adhere to FAA regulations and accepted procedure, or negligence. Any unreported damage discovered on an aircraft will become the responsibility of the last person to fly the aircraft. Piston Aviation will reimburse a customer for repair bills that are mechanical in nature, including tires, unless said repairs are as a result of customer negligence or failure to follow the manufacturers or Piston Aviation policies. It is imperative, therefore, that a thorough preflight and post flight inspection be made before and following each flight and that if any damage is discovered it be reported to the Piston Aviation Management immediately.
Piston Aviation has hull and liability insurance. Deductibles for the insurance vary between the aircraft. The deductibles are as follows:
N9961W - $5,000
N5677W - $5,000
N5714F - $5,000
M445LM - $5,000
N517FA - $5,000
N3668K - $5,000
N33DH - $5,000
N374EA - $5000
N47AM - $10,000
3.10 Observers in Aircraft
Observers will be allowed in aircraft when flight lessons are being conducted only with the consent of both the student and CFI for who will be conducting that lesson and with pre approval of Piston Aviation management. At no point in time will any person under the age of 18 be allowed to observe any Piston Aviation flight training activities without written consent from that person’s parent(s) or legal guardian. Observers can only be authorized for dual flight activities.
3.11 Returning to Piston Aviation Operations after Closing
The renter will return the aircraft to Hangar K2 and park aircraft in the hangar using the provided keycode to the hangar. Keys will be left on the pilot seat of the aircraft and a full post flight walk around using skylist pro will be performed and flight time paid for using sky list pro, if not already prepaid. The renter will shut off all lights in the hangar and lock the door when leaving.
Note: Hangar K2 is fully under surveillance with security cameras 24/7
Chapter 4-Ramp Operations
The ramp area is a potentially hazardous area and safety must be the prime consideration when conducting activities in this area. The ramp area is a location where considerable activity may be present as aircraft are taxiing, fuel and maintenance trucks are moving about, and pilots and mechanics come and go to the aircraft. Only personnel who have specific duties to perform should access the ramp, all others should remain clear. Non-Line or Maintenance Personnel should not interfere with Line operations in any way as this could cause a hazardous situation.
When approaching an airplane, it should be approached from the rear. Always remain clear of propellers and assume that they are going to turn unexpectedly at any moment.
4.2 Fueling and Line Service
In order to save time when assigned an aircraft for a flight, the fuel and oil quantities should be checked after arriving at the aircraft and before starting the preflight inspection.
For Students, your CFI will determine the need to fuel the aircraft after each flight. When you solo fly, you should always fill the tanks to the level at which you saw during your preflight. If at 1H0 tell the line representative that you are with Piston Aviation. When on solo flights or long cross countries and fuel is needed at other airports, you will be responsible to pay for the fuel at the other airport. You may submit your fuel receipt for reimbursement up to the current cost of 100LL at Creve Coeur Airport.
Fueling operations are potentially dangerous. When fueling operations are going on, stay clear of the aircraft, ensure that no one is in the aircraft, that all electrical switches and ignition switches are off, that the aircraft is properly grounded, and that nothing flammable is in the area where the fueling process is taking place.
Smoking on the ramp, in the aircraft, inside the hangar is prohibited. You may smoke in the designated smoking area at the rear of Hangar K2.
All aircraft must be in an airworthy condition before flying. Federal Aviation Regulations require that all installed equipment on an aircraft must be functioning properly before an aircraft is considered to meet the specifications of its type certification. It is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command to ensure that the aircraft to be flown is in an airworthy condition. In addition to the “walk around,” the PIC must verify that all required inspections have been performed and that none will become due during the course of the planned flight.
All maintenance items written up through Sky List Pro must be either repaired or signed off by maintenance before the next flight or be specifically deferred until the next maintenance event. Items that may be deferred by the maintenance department until the next maintenance event:
When maintenance or repair of an instrument or piece of equipment must be deferred, it must be deactivated and placarded “Inoperative” in accordance with the provisions of 14 CFR Part 43. If the aircraft is away from home base, a determination must be made by the pilot-in-command of the aircraft that the inoperative instrument or piece of equipment is not required and that its deactivation does not constitute a hazard to the aircraft for the remainder of the flight.
The Aircraft Inspection Summary lists all inspections that are required on the aircraft and the date or tachometer time when the inspection is due. It is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command to check during the preflight inspection to ensure that no inspection comes due during the planned flight. In the event that the aircraft has 25 hours or less tachometer time remaining until the next inspection event is due, the dispatcher will place a warning sheet inside the Aircraft clipboard at the beginning of the flying day. This sheet will list the tachometer time beyond which the aircraft cannot be
flown until the inspection event is completed. Each pilot-in-command flying that aircraft will then list the tachometer time at the end of each flight and the tachometer time remaining before the inspection is due. Prior to each flight, each pilot-in-command will ensure that there is sufficient time left before the inspection event in which to accomplish the planned flight. If there is not, the planned flight must be cut short or another aircraft must be requested from dispatch.
It is extremely important that inspection times are complied with and not over flown. The Federal Aviation Administration is very specific about the requirement to abide by required inspection times. Any pilot that flies a Piston Aviation' aircraft contrary to any of the specifications above is operating that aircraft in violation of the Federal Aviation Regulations and the policies of Piston Aviation.
If an aircraft is equipped with VOR, VOR log lists when the last VOR accuracy tests were conducted on the aircraft.
Sky List Pro will be used by the pilot at the beginning of each flight. The pilot-in-command, prior to beginning the flight, will review maintenance item write-ups completed, check the status of recurring inspections, and check the inspection status of the VORs if they are going to be used for instrument operations. The PIC will retain the clipboard in the aircraft throughout the course of the flight. At the end of the flight, any discrepancies that may have been discovered or actions taken that should be recorded will be entered on the Aircraft Discrepancy Form.
All maintenance condition write-ups must be described completely and accurately to facilitate an intelligent analysis of the condition by the maintenance supervisor or his representative. Pilots must be specific about what is wrong. Accurate and concise write ups will mean faster repair and less down time. At the end of the flight, a Sky List Pro form will be submitted. If a discrepancy has been entered, the form entry will be turned in to maintenance and the aircraft grounded until corrective maintenance action can be accomplished by the maintenance supervisor or his representative.
4.5 Boarding and Deplaning
All doors or canopies must be opened and closed in accordance with the aircrafts current POH. If you are unsure how to properly secure the canopies or door ask a maintenance technician or line personnel.
Because of the inherent dangers associated with spinning propellers, no one will approach, board, or deplane from Piston Aviation' aircraft with the engine(s) running. Flight CFI’s initiating a supervised solo flight will taxi the aircraft to a point on the airport where the aircraft can be shutdown before the CFI deplanes and likewise before (s) he boards again.
Before starting an engine, all pilots must ensure that the propeller area is clear. Visually check the area in all directions to clear the propeller arc as well as the prop blast area behind the aircraft. In addition, the pilot will call “CLEAR” and then wait for any response prior to turning on the magneto switches and engaging the starter. If fueling operations are in effect at the adjacent aircraft, pilots will wait until the fueling is completed before starting the engine.
The rotating beacon should be turned on prior to starting the engine in order to alert anyone nearby that an engine is about to start. At night the navigation lights as well as the rotating beacon should be turned on prior to starting. Also at night, if the aircraft is equipped with white strobes only and no rotating beacon; do not activate the strobes until taxiing onto the active runway.
During warm weather operations or when additional ventilation is desired inside aircraft without side windows capable of being opened, i.e. PA-28, a common practice is to open the aircraft door(s) to provide for better cooling and ventilation of the cabin. To prevent damage to the door stop mechanism caused by propeller blast, pilots will ensure that during engine starting and taxiing, aircraft doors are either securely shut or are manually held OFF the door step mechanism. Aircraft doors will NOT be locked in the full open position during engine starting and/or taxiing.
Hand propping of Piston Aviation' aircraft is prohibited. If the pilot is unable to start the engine, (s) he should notify Piston Aviation Management. Maintenance personnel will be notified.
Cold Weather Starting Procedures
When temperatures fall below 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius), it is much more difficult to start aircraft engines. Cold weather starting procedures will be followed when the ambient temperature falls below 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius) and the engine is cold to the touch. In addition, pilots will ensure that all lifting surfaces, to include the windscreen are clear of all ice or frost prior to starting the aircraft for the purpose of flight. If engine will not start: Do not make another attempt. Seek assistance from maintenance. Do not run down the battery in an attempt to start a cold engine. See the appropriate POH for cold weather starting procedures.
When temperatures are below 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius) all Piston Aviation aircraft not equipped with a block heater that are operating must be preheated by certified line personnel who are specifically trained to preheat airplanes prior to attempting to start the engine. During preheating all electrical switches and magnetos must be in the off position and the airplane properly secured. In addition, if the airplane is equipped with a block heater or blanket these items must be reinstalled at the end of each flight lesson unless instructed Piston Aviation Management. The blanket when removed for flight should be placed in the aircraft baggage area.
Use of Pitot Heat
Pitot heat should not be activated on stationary aircraft for purposes other than checking for proper operation. Use of pitot heat without airflow over the pitot tube will reduce heater element life and will create unnecessary hazards such as igniting de-icing fluid or causing serious burns to personnel contacting the hot probe. Pitot heat is to be used only for airborne operations (just prior to takeoff). Pitot heat shall not be turned on for extended periods on the ground.
Windscreen Care during De-icing Procedures
Scraping windscreens with credit cards, ice scrapers, etc., scratches the windscreen therefore decreasing the effectiveness of vision outside the aircraft creating a hazard with regard to collision avoidance.
Frost and ice is to be removed using glycol propylene. Scraping of any surface on the aircraft with abrasive materials (including credit cards and scrapers) is prohibited.
As the aircraft moves out of the tie down position, brakes on the pilot’s side and the passenger’s side (on dual flights) should be tested to ensure they operate correctly.
Taxi speed on the ramps and in the vicinity of other aircraft will be no faster than a walk. Particular care will be used when taxiing in close quarters to ensure adequate clearance between aircraft. All Piston Aviation aircraft will taxi with the nose wheel centered on the yellow taxiway centerline at all times, unless necessary to deviate to avoid obstacles on or near the taxiway.
Pilots should be aware that adherence to the centerline does not always guarantee obstacle/wingtip clearance, and constant vigilance and slow forward speed should be maintained when near other aircraft or obstacles.
4.8 Flat Tires
If a flat tire is encountered at any point in time while on the ground or directly after takeoff no further ground movement or landing should be attempted until contacting Piston Aviation Management or their designee to await their instructions to the safest course of action to both the airplane and pilot.
Correct PSI for Tires
Aircraft Type Nose & Main Gear Pressures
PA28-140, Piper Cherokee 140: PSI 24 PSI
PA28-160, Piper Cherokee 160: PSI 24 PSI
BE19, Beechcraft Musketeer: PSI 35 PSI
Bristell 912 ULS: PSI 32 to 35 PSI
SR20: Nose: 60 PSI, Mains: 80 PSI
The tail tie down is to be removed and placed by the right wing tie down in order to prevent potential hazards when pulling the aircraft into a parking spot. If the tie down is a rope then it can be kept secured to the ground but use extreme caution when taxing forward near the tie down. The same applies if an aircraft was tied down previously in front of your airplane.
When parking aircraft on the Piston Aviation ramp, pilots will ensure the nose gear remains on the centerline of the tie down pad and that no portion of the nose gear extends beyond the front edge of the pad.
After shutdown, install the control lock and complete the “Securing Aircraft” Checklist
Tie downs (tail and both wings if available) will be properly attached to Piston Aviation aircraft any time the aircraft is left unattended for extended periods of time. Rope Chocks will be used on Piston Aviation aircraft at airports where tie-downs are not available. Rope Chocks or at least one tie-down will be attached any time the aircraft is left unattended momentarily. Rope Chocks will remain in the aircraft when not in use and will be stored in the baggage compartment.
When exiting the aircraft, ensure that all switches are off, and all trash and personal items are removed from the aircraft. In addition, all Rudder or Gust Locks must be installed. All doors and windows must be closed and the Sky List Pro post flight checklist form submitted and key should be returned to the Piston Aviation Management.
4.10 Aircraft and Simulator Care
It is the pilot’s responsibility to help keep the aircraft and ramp areas free of debris. At no time, with the exception of bottled water, will any food or beverages be permitted on the ramp or in any Piston Aviation' aircraft. Anything brought into the aircraft shall be removed at the end of the flight. Materials for cleaning windows and windshields are available in Hangar K2. Use of cleaning materials other than those provided may result in damage to the Plexiglass and therefore should not be used. Trash should be removed from the aircraft, regardless of who left it there. Loose trash in airplanes has caused many accidents in general aviation by binding control movement or distracting the pilot. Think of the next pilot who will use that aircraft and leave it in a clean and neat condition.
There will be no food or drink allowed in or near the simulators. Food and Drink (besides bottled water) should be limited to the upstairs area of Hangar K2. When drinking water during simulator time please step away from the simulator area at least 5 feet, to prevent accential water spillage on Simulator and computer equipment.
4.11 Call Signs
Aircraft call signs “tail number” are to be used in their entirety at all times. Call Signs for each aircraft shall be stated as follows:
PA28-140: “Cherokee Niner Niner Six One Whiskey”
PA28-140: "Cherokee Tree Six Six Eight Kilo"
PA28-140/160: "Cherokee Fife Seven One Four Foxtrot"
PA28-160: “Cherokee Fife Six Seven Seven Whiskey”
Bristell 912 ULS: “Bristell Fife One Seven Foxtrot Alpha”
Bristell 912 ULS: "Bristell Four Four Fife Lima Mike"
Tomark SD4 Viper: "Viper Tree Seven Four Echo Alpha"
Beechcraft Musketeer BE19 "Musketeer Tree Tree Delta Hotel"
SR20: "Cirrus Four Seven Alpha Mike"
4.12 Dry Time
CFI’s often assign students to practice aircraft cockpit procedures while seated in an aircraft parked on the ramp. This exercise is called “Dry Time.” The purpose is to reinforce learning through recognition and repetition of in-flight procedures. Students will be authorized to practice dry time procedures based upon aircraft availability. Flight activities will have priority at all times
The following dry time procedures will be adhered to:
Chapter 5-Local Operations
This section contains procedures for operations in the local area, including those airports located in the practice areas that are approved for use by Piston Aviation aircraft. Local operations include flights from Creve Coeur Airport (1H0) into the designated practice areas.. Student Pilots must remain within 25 nautical miles of their home base, and must have a logbook endorsement from their flight CFI in order to fly solo to outlying airports.
Any flight that intends to proceed outside of the practice area must file a flight plan with the FAA and leave a copy of that flight plan with the Piston Aviation Management before departing. Flight plans need not be filed for operations to approved outlying airports within the practice area.
5.2 Dispatch Procedures
When arriving for a flight, the customer should first check the weather to determine if the flight can be accomplished under the existing and forecast conditions. Piston Aviation has iPads with Foreflight loaded so that a pilot may obtain information on the local weather conditions.
All customer pilots must complete a risk assessment form, performance form and Weight & Balance form and e-mail or give a printed copy to the Piston Aviation Management in order to be dispatched.
Dispatch of a flight shall be determined by the Piston Aviation Management Representative after consideration of current and forecasted weather conditions. Piston Aviation Management Representative will ensure that the weather conditions meet or exceed the limitations set forth herein:
For example, a dual flight could be performed with a reported wind of 10 knots, gusting to 25 knots with a cross wind component of 12 knots (in a PA28-140).
For example, a solo flight could be performed with a reported wind of 10 knots, gusting to 17 knots with a cross wind component of 10 knots (not to exceed aircraft limitations).
The take off minimums for dual IFR training flights will be an 800’ ceiling and 2 SM visibility or greater at the time of departure for all airports of intended use.
Alternate airport requirements for all IFR Cross Country: An alternate must be listed in accordance with 14 CFR 91.167(b).
14 CFR 91.167(b) states that:
(b) Paragraph (a)(2) of this section does not apply if:
(1) Part 97 of this chapter prescribes a standard instrument approach procedure to, or a special instrument approach procedure has been issued by the Administrator to the operator for, the first airport of intended landing; and
combination of them, indicate the following
before and for 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, the
ceiling will be at least 2,000 feet above the airport elevation
and the visibility will be at least 3 statute miles.
The alternate airport listed must have weather minimums that are reporting at least 1,000’ ceilings and 3 SM visibility.
Weather Minimums for all flights are based upon current and/or forecast conditions, obtained through ASOS, AWOS, METAR, TAF, FA, AIRMETS, SIGMETS and/or CONVECTIVE SIGMETS. If these minimums are exceeded during the course of a flight due to unforecasted conditions, the flight shall divert or terminate as soon as practicable.
Reducing the above limits can only be accomplished with prior permission from a Piston Aviation Flight Instructor.
5.3 Fuel Requirements
All local duals, local solos and dual flights to the outlying fields must have sufficient fuel to complete the flight and still have a 1 hour reserve at normal cruise speed. For the purpose of fuel requirements, LOCAL means flights that remain within the boundaries of the practice area. All other flights, except dual flights to outlying fields, are considered cross-country flights and fall under the provisions of this manual.
5.4 Adherence to Scheduled Flight Times
It is extremely important that the customer and/or CFI utilize the aircraft within scheduled times. The planned flight must be back at the scheduled return time (10 minutes prior to the end of the scheduled period) as another customer will be waiting for the aircraft. If a departure delay is encountered, the pilot may request an extension of the due-back time prior to departure. If possible, the request will be granted. If not, the aircraft must return at the scheduled due-back time. If during a flight, an extension of a flight period is needed, the request for the extension should be made to Piston Aviation Management no later than 30 minutes before the due back time. If the extension cannot be granted, the flight must return 10 minutes prior to the scheduled due back time. If an aircraft is not back on time, the Piston Aviation Management Representative will initiate search procedures.
Failure to arrive by the scheduled block time that is not because of air traffic, weather, or maintenance delays will result in a loss of rental privileges.
5.5 Practice Areas
While in the practice areas all instructors and students must monitor Piston Aviation operations frequency on 123.45 if aircraft is equipped with 2nd radio Comm. If not equipped with a second radio comm it is imperative that Students and Flight instructors stay on local Unicom frequencies as scheduled for Flight Plan.
1H0 Practice Areas – The Practice areas Piston Aviation generally uses for most training maneuvers is shown on the sectional map below as the areas outlined in Black.
Piston Aviation from 1H0 Practice Areas
5.6 Pre/Post Flight Briefing
Prior to each flight, the student will be briefed by their CFI and FRAT sheet via Sky List Pro will be completed. If the FRAT sheet indicates a No-Go for the day the Student and CFI will discuss the factors. Briefings will include descriptions, objectives, procedures, and standards for the maneuvers to be performed. After the flight, the CFI will solicit a self analysis from the student by asking them, “What went well? Why?” and “What did not go well? Why?” Next, the CFI will critique the student’s performance, noting both strong and weak points. This dual evaluation erases misconceptions, and encourages ongoing self-assessment and evaluation with respect to comprehension of concepts and flight performance. Anything that is unclear to the student should be explained by the CFI at this time. The student should not leave a pre or post flight briefing until they are confident that all questions have been answered.
5.7 Night Solo Operations
Solo night flying operations will be scheduled and supervised by a CFI or flight supervisor. All pilots conducting night operations are required to have in their possession at least two flashlights or other light source adequate to conduct a preflight inspection and to view the instrument panel in flight if an electrical failure occurs. Particular care should be taken at night when conducting the preflight inspection since discrepancies are more difficult to see at night. It is imperative that all required lights are operating correctly. Student pilots holding a Student Pilot Certificate will not fly solo at night. They may not depart on a solo flight in the morning prior to official sunrise. Student pilots must be on the ground no later than official sunset. If on a cross-country flight, they must return and be on the ground at their home base one hour before sunset. Flight students who hold a Private Pilot Certificate are authorized to fly at night for the purpose of completing those lessons/units that must be flown at night. If on a day VFR solo cross-country flight, they must be back on the ground at their departure airport at or before 30 minutes after official sunset.
A non-private pilot flight student may not be dispatched on a solo night flight unless the student has received a night briefing from their flight CFI.
Although the responsibility for educating flight students in night flying procedures, precautions, and preparations lies with the student’s flight CFI, there will be a night flying briefing for all students scheduled at least once every 12 months. This briefing will cover preparation and procedural items of importance to night flying activities.
5.8 Noise Abatement
All Piston Aviation' pilots will cooperate to the fullest with Airport management to assist in the reduction of noise in the vicinity of Creve Coeur Airport (1H0). All Piston Aviation' pilots will adhere to the local noise abatement procedures as published by the airport manager/FAA.
5.9 Taxi/Landing Light Operation
In an effort to reduce maintenance costs and aircraft down time, aircraft taxi/landing lights will be activated while operating within the vicinity of an airport, during times of reduced visibility or when maneuvering in the practice area.
5.10 Arrival and Departure Procedures
All arrival and departure procedures at Creve Coeur Airport (1H0) will be in compliance with AIM procedures for uncontrolled airports. Traffic pattern altitude will be flown at 1112 ft. MSL.
Note: Due to the class Bravo Airspace of St. Louis Lambert International Airspace that Runway 16 has a Right Traffic Pattern.
Chapter 6- Emergency Operations
REMEMBER: AVIATE – NAVIGATE - COMMUNICATE
There is always an initial sense of panic when something unexpected occurs that may affect the safety of the flight. This feeling must be overcome because any type of emergency is best handled by remaining calm and methodically working to find a solution to the problem.
In order to learn to overcome this feeling, customers will be drilled repeatedly on emergency procedures. The purpose is to ingrain these procedures in the customers so well that their reactions to an emergency are automatic and are completed without doubt as to how to appropriately respond to the emergency.
Some emergencies are more immediate than others. Depending on the type of emergency and situation, some procedures must be committed to memory due to time limitations, while others can be dealt with by the more preferable method of using a checklist or by consulting the Pilot’s Operating Handbook or Aircraft Operating Instructions.
When an emergency occurs, the primary duty of a pilot is to fly the aircraft. Pilots should not become so distracted by the emergency that their attention is diverted from the task of flying the aircraft. Many simple emergency situations have turned into major accidents when the pilot became distracted and ceased to function as the pilot of the aircraft.
Listed below are three basic rules to remember that will aid immeasurable for a safe emergency situation resolution:
6.2 Deteriorating Weather
To the VFR pilot, a reduction in visibility and/or ceiling can be an emergency situation. Marginal VFR and IFR conditions can occur suddenly. To best avoid an encounter with IFR conditions, pilots must remain alert to changing conditions and be ready to take timely action to avoid being caught in rapidly deteriorating weather. All pilots should have an alternative course of action in mind and should be ready to execute that course of action when conditions start to deteriorate.
If the flight is operating in the local practice area, the pilot should monitor Spirt of St. Louis (KSUS) ATIS 134.8 or St. Louis Lambert International (KSTL) ATIS 125.05 for weather information. If deteriorating weather is encountered while in the practice area or if the airport goes IFR before the flight can return to the airport, the pilot should notify ATC St. Louis Approach on 132.125 and request guidance. Several airports are located within the practice area, and it is usually possible to go to one of them and wait for the situation to clear up. In any event, remain calm, closely monitor the remaining fuel supply, keep track of aircraft position, and always remain in control of the situation.
6.3 Lost Communications Procedures
It is virtually impossible to provide procedures applicable to all possible situations associated with two-way radio communications failure. During two-way radio communications failure, when confronted by a situation not covered in the regulation, pilots are expected to exercise good judgment in whatever action they decide to take.
Creve Coeur Airport (1H0) is an unrestricted airfield so Radio communications is not required to land or enter the pattern, however, the pilot should follow all pattern rules and be extra cautious of the other planes in the landing pattern, they cannot hear you!
If for some reason you have to land at Spirit of St. Louis (KSUS) and a communications malfunction is confirmed, the following no radio procedure should be used to safely enter an airport located in Class D airspace:
landing when the proper light signal has been received. If no signals are received, remain at pattern altitude and remain in the pattern.
6.4 Lost Procedures
A current Kansas City Sectional Chart is a mandatory item for all flights.
Lost aircraft on a local flight or cross-country flight should attempt to determine their location using the following procedures:
iii. Watch for prominent landmarks.
iii. Locate airplane position using radials bearings/DME.
function to take you to a known location.
In the event the above procedure fails to determine airplane position, contact the nearest ATC facility or FSS for radar assistance. Remember the 5 C’s- Confess, Climb, Communicate, Comply, Conserve.
NOTE: CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO EXECUTING AN OFF AIRPORT PRECAUTIONARY LANDING.
DISTANCE OFF COURSE, FUEL REMAINING, AND WEATHER CONDITIONS.
6.5 Forced Landing
In the event that a forced landing becomes necessary, it is very likely that the landing will take place in a relatively remote area. Unless the exact position of the aircraft is known along with the direction and distance to the nearest aid of assistance, it is best to stay with the aircraft. Staying with the aircraft will afford shelter and a larger target for search and rescue personnel to observe from the air.
Each aircraft is equipped with an emergency First Aid Kit which can be utilized in the event of a forced landing. All pilots should be familiar with the contents of the First Aid Kit. Pilots should ensure that the ELT located behind the tail compartment is turned on and transmitting.
1. Ground - The majority of fires that do occur on a ramp stem from improper priming procedures in cold weather which results in a carburetor fire. Utilize the proper priming procedures set forth in the aircraft POH to determine the safest and most effective method to use when starting the engine. In the event of a carburetor fire while starting, follow the
recommended procedure listed in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook and the aircraft checklist. Most carburetor fires can be “sucked” into the engine if the pilot remains calm, continues to crank the engine and shuts off the fire’s source of fuel. If the fire does not go out, evacuate the aircraft and report the fire. If a fire extinguisher is available and the fire is still small, accessible and manageable, try to extinguish the fire with the fire
extinguisher, but always avoid any possibility of personal injury. If an attempt is going to be made to extinguish the fire, adhere to the following guidelines:
possible. Don’t attempt to restart an engine that has been shut down due to fire. If the fire is electrical, the situation is not as critical. Shut the master switch off and follow the appropriate checklist to isolate the defective device. Land as soon as practical.
6.7 Unsafe Landing Gear Indications
Many unsafe landing gear indications are traced to minor problems in the indicating system and not actual gear malfunctions. However, any malfunction of the gear indicating system should be treated as if the gear were not down and locked, and the appropriate emergency procedure from the Pilot’s Operating Handbook should be followed.
If a gear malfunction should occur in the local area and the problem cannot be resolved through the use of the procedures in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook, the pilot should contact ATC on St. Louis approach Frequency 132.125 before attempting a landing.
If the gear deployment malfunction occurs in the traffic pattern and cannot be resolved quickly, it is suggested that the pilot (with a clearance from the tower if the field is controlled) climb to an altitude above the airport where the aircraft is out of the way of other aircraft, and then work on resolving the gear malfunction problem.
If the malfunction can still not be resolved and a down and locked indication cannot be achieved, the pilot may request to do a low pass at a slow airspeed so that observers on the ground or in the tower (if controlled) can visually check the position of the landing gear. On unicom frequency 122.8 make call saying Gear Malfunction and request assistance to anyone listening.
When the decision is made to land without a gear down and locked indication, call for emergency crash and rescue equipment to be available, then touchdown softly and let the aircraft roll out with minimum use of brakes. Consideration should be given to utilize a standard soft field landing technique. Any turns should be avoided. After rolling out on the runway, leave the aircraft on the runway, shut down the engine and inform the appropriate authority of the situation. Piston Aviation' maintenance personnel and if necessary lock the landing gear in the down position. If the landing gear malfunction takes place during takeoff and the landing gear fails to retract when the gear handle is put n the “Up” position, the pilot after verifying that the gear will not retract, should return the gear handle to the “Down” position, confirm that the gear is down and locked, the “in transit” light off (if applicable), and then return to the airport and make a precautionary landing.
The pilot should bear in mind the increase in the risk factor on multi-engine aircraft that results when the gear on a multi-engine aircraft cannot be retracted for whatever reason. Should an engine malfunction occur when the gear is down and unable to be retracted, single engine performance will more than likely be reduced to the pilot where altitude cannot be maintained and a landing must be made.
6.8 Accident or Incident Notification Procedure
In the event of an accident, incident, forced landing, precautionary landing, or damage to an aircraft, the pilot-in-command will notify Piston Aviation Management as soon as possible. The following information will be relayed to Maintenance: a. Date
If an Piston Aviation' aircraft is involved in an aircraft incident or accident, the pilot-in command should not admit blame or fault to anyone other than Piston Aviation' officials. No statements or comments should be made to any member of press. Persons involved in any aircraft accident/incident will:
Effective and efficient communications are essential for safe aircraft operations. A pilot must communicate for the purpose of air traffic control, obtaining airport and runway information, obtaining aircraft services and acquiring general information necessary to make operational decisions. One of the most misunderstood essentials of communications is the art of listening. Listen before talking. Much can be learned by listening rather than talking. When you have to talk, say what you have to in the fewest words necessary to get your message across. All radio communications will be conducted in accordance with Chapter 4, Section 2 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM).
7.2 Pilot Headsets
The cockpit of an aircraft is a very difficult place for two people to communicate due to engine and airflow noise. For this reason, all of the Piston Aviation aircraft are equipped with intercom systems for headset usage by customer, CFI and observer. This greatly increases the effectiveness of the training environment. It is required that all customers use headsets during their flight. The use of headsets not only improves the quality of instruction, but also reduces fatigue and the dangerous physical effects of noise on a pilot’s hearing ability.
All customers are responsible for obtaining and owning their own headset for lessons.
Chapter 8- Restrictions and Limitations
The Piston Aviation pilot is expected to abide not only by the FAA’s rules and regulations, but also the Piston Aviation’ policies as set forth in this manual and other Piston Aviation’ publications. The underlying purpose for all policies, restrictions, and limitations is for safety. Any pilot who commits an infraction of the rules and regulations will be disciplined, and may, if the information is serious enough, be removed from the flight training program.
It is the responsibility of each customer, CFI, and staff member to know the contents of this manual and to abide by the rules and regulations contained herein. Not knowing that a rule or restriction exists is not an excuse for failing to follow the directives set forth in this manual.
8.2 Dress Code
All customers and visitor/guest observers engaged in the activities involving the flying or observing in Piston Aviation aircraft, will, as a minimum, wear the following:
8.3 Alcohol and Drug Restrictions
No person may act or attempt to act as a crew member of Piston Aviation' aircraft under the following conditions:
Any Piston Aviation pilot found operating an aircraft or attempting to operate an aircraft in violation of the above will be dismissed from the flight training program and will be subject to dismissal from Piston Aviation with possible further action being taken by the FAA for violation of 14 CFR’s 91.17 and 91.19.
8.4 Carriage of Fire Arms
Carrying or transporting any firearm or ammunition aboard Piston Aviation aircraft at any time or for any reason is prohibited. The possession or carrying of deadly weapons is prohibited on the premises of any Piston Aviation Facility.
8.5 General Flight Rules
The following restrictions apply to all flights as appropriate:
8.6 Aircraft Check Out Procedures
All renters of Piston Aviation aircraft must complete an Annual Flight Review, Limitations Exam, and Renter Check Out flight for each aircraft they wish to rent and must have a current BFR.
Check Out Flights will be completed under the guidelines as outlined in Appendix B.
8.7 Weather Restrictions
See Section 5.2
8.8 Touch and Go Restrictions
Touch-and-go operations are prohibited by Student Pilot’s at all times. Dual flights and Rental flights are permitted to do Stop-and-go’s where adequate runway is available after landing to safely perform the maneuver and clear any obstacle by 50’.
In addition, no intersections takeoffs are permitted in any Piston Aviation aircraft when there is less than 4,000 feet remaining of available runway.
8.9 Airport Restrictions
All flight operations are restricted to airports specified in this manual or as authorized by a Piston Aviation Flight Instructor. Any airport flown into that has no fuel or services available, the customer will be charged an additional, nonrefundable, fee of $35.
The additional fees collected go toward the cost of sending a mechanic to the airport in the case maintenance needs to be provided by Piston Aviation.
All operations at non-towered airports will be conducted in accordance with the applicable sections of Chapter 4 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), specifically, but not limited to sections 4-3-3 and 4-3-4 pertaining to traffic pattern operations.
Aircraft will announce their position and intentions when operating at an uncontrolled airport in accordance with section 4-1-9 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM).
When a pilot change is to be made at an uncontrolled field, that changes will be made on the airport ramp clear of the runway and taxiways where the aircraft will not interfere with the arrival or departure of other aircraft.
Communications at airports with closed control towers will be made on the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) which is normally the published control tower frequency.
All operations at towered airports will be conducted in accordance with the applicable sections of Chapter 4 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM), specifically, but not limited to, sections 4-3-2 and 4-3-4 pertaining to traffic pattern operations, unless specifically directed to do otherwise by the control tower.
Aircraft intending to remain in the traffic pattern shall advise the tower prior to departure or prior to pattern entry for arriving aircraft.
If remaining in the traffic pattern, commence the crosswind turn 300 feet below traffic pattern altitude.
If departing the traffic pattern climb to traffic pattern altitude before making any turns unless specifically directed to do otherwise by the control tower.
After landing, clear the runway as expeditiously as possible. Do not make 180 degree turns on the runway unless specifically directed to do so by the control tower.
All Airports a student pilot intends to fly to whether during a solo flight or solo cross country flight, must have a reviewed flight plan by a Piston Aviation CFI and have been log book approved.
Any airport destination, for a student pilot or renter, further than 50 NM must be disclosed to Piston Aviation Management, have flight plan approved by Piston Aviation Management if student pilot and Flight Plan filed with the FAA if a renter.
8.10 Solo Restrictions
The following restrictions apply to solo flights:
8.11 Solo and/or Night Flying Restrictions
The following restrictions apply to solo/PIC night flying:
8.12 Flight/Duty Time Restrictions
No more than three flight activities within a 24 hour period. Adequate rest before scheduled flight activities, a minimum of six hours is suggested.
8.13 Care of Aircraft
All students and Renters are responsible for the care of the aircraft while in their possession. Piston Aviation takes pride in the condition of the Aircraft it provides to students and renters, and expects the students and renters to take pride in the condition of the aircraft they get to fly. The following basic guidelines are expected of All students and renters while using a Piston Aviation Aircraft.
Chapter 9 - Payment and Refund Policies
9.1 Payment Policy
Full payment for used Flight hours and Instructor time is always due the day of the flight, via approved payment method.
9.2 Approved Payment Methods
Approved Payment Methods include:
No Personal checks are accepted as a method of payment.
9.3 Grounding for Non-Payment
If a student or renter fails to pay or has payment declined for any reason, he or she will be grounded until their account is paid in full. There will be a $50 Non-Sufficient fund fee assessed for any transaction that is returned to Piston Aviation for any reason.
9.4 Prepaid Flight Hours
Piston Aviation offers and encourages Students and Renters to Pre-pay their flight time. Customers must have positive Flight Hour Balance of at least 2 hours on their account to be able to schedule Flights. Flight and Instructor Hours may be purchased in person at 14201 Creve Coeur Airport Rd, Hangar K2 St. Louis MO 63146 via approved payment method or online using the Flight Scheduling webpage or app. All hours sold on a prepaid basis are good with Piston Aviation for 12 months at the rate they are sold at. After 12 months, and every 30 days thereafter, Piston Aviation reserves the right to adjust the plane and instructor hour balances of a customer's account based on its currently published rates on https://flypiston.com.
9.5 Refund Policy for Prepaid Hours
All Flight and Instructor Hours are completely non-refundable once used. All Sales are final for Flight Hours, Instructor Hours and Merchandise on the day of the flight and sales transaction on merchandise.
9.5.1 "Pay as you Go" Flight and Instructor Hour Refund Policy
After November 5th, 2023 all Flight Hour/Aircraft Rental Hour Purchases up to 9.9 Hours are considered "Pay as you Go" regardless of purchase price. All "Pay as you Go" Flight Hour/Aircraft Rental Hour Purchases are completely Non-Refundable.
After November 5th, 2023, Instructor Hours Purchased outside of a Training Package are considered "Pay as you Go" Instructor Hours. "Pay as you Go" Instructor Hours are completely non-refundable
Flight hours and Instructor hours are transferable to another student, upon approval from Piston Aviation Management
Flight Hours and Instructor Hours purchased prior to November 5th, 2023 will be refunded with the follow conditions
9.5.2 Block Hour Refund Policy
All Flight Hour/Aircraft Rental Hour Purchases 10 Hours or more are considered "Block Hour" purchases .
All unused Block Hour Purchases are refundable with the following conditions
9.5.3 Training Package Refund Policy
Piston Aviation Sells Sport Pilot, Private Pilot, IFR, Custom IFR, Commercial, and CFI training packages. The packages include a defined number of Flight/Aircraft Rental Hours, and Instructor Hours, as well as Course Material and Pilot Supplies.
These Packages are refundable with the following conditions:
9.5.4 Example Refund calculations
Example Refund calculation #1: A discounted Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using a Mastercard for $9,999. The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of package purchase was $189/hr and $89/hr respectively. The student decided after 11 hours of flight training and 15 hours of instructor time in the first 90 days since purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund. The refund would be calculated as follows.
$9,999 - 3% credit card fee - $1000 supply fee - 11 hrs x $189 - 15 hrs x $89
= $9,999 - ($9,999 x0.03) - $1000 - ($189 x 11) - ($89 x 15)
= $9,999 - $299.97 - $1000 - $2079 - $1335
In this situation $3,585.03 will be due to the student pilot as a refund, and will be payable via company check from Piston Aviation to the student, or refund to credit card used to Purchase.
Example Refund calculation #2: A Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using a Mastercard for $13,500. The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of refund request was $189/hr and $89/hr respectively. The student decided after 2 hours of flight training and 3 hours of instructor time 65 says after purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund. The refund would be calculated as follows.
($13,500 - 3% credit card fee - $1000 supply fee - 2 hrs x $189 - 3 hrs x $89)*50%
=($13,500 - ($13,500 x0.03) - $1000 - ($189 x 2) - ($89 x 3))x0.50
= ($13,500 - $405 - $1000 - $378 - $267)x0.50
In this situation $5,725.00will be due to the student pilot as a refund, and will be payable via company check from Piston Aviation to the student, or refund to credit card used to Purchase.
Example Refund calculation #3: A Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using CASH for $13,500. The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of refund request was $170/hr and $85/hr respectively. The student decided after 13 hours of flight training and 18 hours of instructor time 150 days since purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund. The refund would be calculated as follows.
($13,500 - $1000 supply fee - 13 hrs x $170 - 18 hrs x $85)*50%
=($13,500 - $1000 - ($170 x 13) - ($85 x 18)x0.50
= ($13,500 - $1000 - $2210 - $1530)x0.50
In this situation $4,380 will be due to the student pilot as a refund, and will be payable via company check from Piston Aviation to the student, or refund to credit card used to Purchase.
Example Refund calculation #4: A Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using CASH for $13,500. The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of refund request was $165/hr and $85/hr respectively. The student decided after 25 hours of flight training and 30 hours of instructor time in 200 days since purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund. The refund would be calculated as follows.
No Refund (after 180 days)
In this situation No Refund will be due to the student pilot as a refund, but the student can choose to transfer his or her remaining hours to another student.
9.6 Refund Policy for Student Loan Financing through Meritze - Zero to Hero Program
The Zero to Hero Program is built on a 250 Flight Hour Program. The First $2000 of each disbursement from Meritize is non refundable for course materials and onboarding. Refunds will be calculated by dividing the total Program Cost ($75,000 as of August 24th 2023) by 250 Flight Hours, and multiplying the that calculation by the number of total hours flown with Piston Aviation, then subtracting that amount from the Funds already distributed to Piston Aviation LLC from Meritize. Per Piston Aviation's Progressive Use it or Lose it refund policy, All unused funds will be reduced in refund value by 8.3% every 30 days the student is enrolled in the program. After 12 months of enrollment with Piston Aviation, all funds received by Meritize are fully non-refundable.
9.7 Refund Policy for Student Loan Financing through Meritze - IFR to Hero Program
The Zero to Hero Program is built on a 200 Flight Hour Program. The First $2000 of each disbursement from Meritize is non refundable for course materials and onboarding. Refunds will be calculated by dividing the total Program Cost ($60,000 as of August 24th 2023) by 250 Flight Hours, and multiplying the that calculation by the number of total hours flown with Piston Aviation, then subtracting that amount from the Funds already distributed to Piston Aviation LLC from Meritize. Per Piston Aviation's Progressive Use it or Lose it refund policy, All unused funds will be reduced in refund value by 10% every 30 days the student is enrolled in the program. After 10 months of enrollment with Piston Aviation, all funds received by Meritize are fully non-refundable.
9.8 Refund Policy for Accelerated Programs
All Funds minus a $1000 and 3% Credit card Fee (if Credit or Debit Card was used for purchase) are refundable if written notice (email is satisfactory) is provided of withdraw at least 10 days prior to assigned accelerated program start date. Student may re-book to later accelerated program start date for a $500 re-booking fee. After the start of student's assigned accelerated program dates, all funds become completely non-refundable. There are no Minimum Hours Piston has to provide for the accelerated program however For the Private Pilot Accelerated Program Student shall not exceed 55 Aircraft Rental Hours and 55 Instructor Hours. Once student sits for license checkride, student hour account will be set to zero. The cost of the First checkride is covered in the accelerated program, however, if additional checkrides are needed, aircraft hours, instructor hours, and cost of additional checkrides will be at student's expense.
9.9 Refund Policy for "Pay As you Fly" Customers
A minimum of 2 Hours of Flight Time for Solo Bookings and 2 Hours of Instructor Time for Dual Instruction Bookings must be in customer's account in order for them to book a flight appointment. All Purchases are final once payment is made, no refunds will be issued. If a flight is cancelled for any reason, customer may rebook another flight, using the hours previously purchased.
9.10 Rental Membership Policies
Chapter 10 Media Release
Chapter 11 COVID-19 Policy
Our primary concern at Piston Aviation is the health and welfare of all of our people including Staff, CFIs, Students and Customers. For this reason a positive Covid-19 test result is ALWAYS a legitimate reason to cancel a flight.
11.1 Grounding due to Covid
If a CFI, Customer or Student tests positive for Covid-19 of any variant, they will be grounded until 3 days after a Negative Covid-19 test result.
If you are student, and we know this can cause some scheduling headaches if a CFI you rely on goes down, Piston Aviation will do our best to find you a substitute CFI and keep you flying, but thank you in advance for understanding if it does happen, as stated before the Health and Safety of everyone connected to Piston Aviation is our TOP Priority!
I have read this Operations Policy and Manual, have asked all necessary questions to be comfortable signing and agree to adhere to all Policy and operational expectations herein.
The Personal Limitations checklist (PLC) was developed in order to help new pilots increase their situational awareness by reading about other pilot incidents and thereafter fly more safely. The PLC will help you to become a very safe pilot if you and your CFI commit to developing your own customized set of limitations. Once created, you must then make a pledge to continually update your PLC and adhere to the limitations you and your CFI have set. The numbers in parenthesis are suggested for the new pilot. Created by Louis Mancuso 1992
Your limitations will increase & decrease depending on currency, total time and experience.
I PLEDGE TO:
Use go-around technique (Throttle, flaps, carburetor heat) and initiate the GO portion early enough to obtain 500’ AGL by the end of the runway.
HAVE RESPECT FOR THE SURFACE WINDS and USE LOWER LIMITS IN AN LSA:
I will only fly on bright moonlight nights when the visibility exceeds_____ (10) miles and the temperature dew point spread exceeds ____________ (12) degrees.
I will always keep ground lights in sight.
I will never takeoff on an overcast night towards the open sea or rural farmland.
I will fly into airports I have recently flown into during the daytime. I will always use the VASI to assist my night landings.
I will only fly into airports with____ (4000’) runways that are___ (100’) wide. I will reduce my wind limits by ______ (5) knots at night.
I will carry _____ (2) two accessible flashlights.
Date _______________ CFI ______________ Revised August 2022
AIRCRAFT CHECK OUT MINIMUMS
All Renters must have completed an appropriate Limitations Exam prior to renting any aircraft. This exam must have been reviewed logged in the customers FSP account by the CFI performing the Check-Out Flight. A Personal Limitations Check List must be completed by each renter and updated as the renters proficiency changes and he/she feels their personal minimums should be changed. This PLC must be reviewed with a Piston Aviation instructor and a copy kept on file at Mid Island. A Rental Agreement must be signed and kept on file at Piston Aviation. A new agreement will be filled out for each extended rental listing minimums and destinations.
All Renters must have received a current Annual Flight Review in the aircraft they wish to rent. This will be logged in the customers FSP account.
VFR Pilots: All Check out flights must cover a minimum of the following flight maneuvers to the current PTS or ACS of that airmen’s certificate. (Slow Flight, Stalls, Emergency Operations, & 3 Takeoffs and Landings)
IFR Pilots: All check out flights must cover a minimum of the same procedures as required to be performed for an Instrument Proficiency Check as outlined in the current Instrument Rating ACS.
1) ALL FIXED PITCH AIRCRAFT
2) COMPLEX and HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT
3) FOR ALL AIRCRAFT
4) Check-out minimums can only be reduced by the Chief Flight Instructor or the General Manager ONLY
5) All FIXED pitch:
6) HIGH PERFORMANCE AND COMPLEX AIRCRAFT
7) For all aircraft: NIGHT QUALIFICATIONS
A pilot must perform 3 takeoffs and landing to a FULL STOP in the category and class of aircraft (ie: SEL,MEL) to be used, (with an instructor) before night use will be permitted. This currency must be maintained every 60 days.
A flight with a Mid Island CFI will be required if currency minimums have not been met.
A current credit card must be on file prior to all rentals
Leave this empty:
Your legal name
Your email address
Signed by Joe Ord Signed On: November 20, 2023
If you have questions about the contents of this document, you can email the document owner.
Document Name: Piston Aviation LLC Operations Manual and Contract
Agree & Sign