Piston Aviation LLC Operations Manual and Contract


Flight Operations Manual & Contract - Version 7 - updated 02/05/2024

Safety Procedures and Practices 

Creve Coeur Airport (1HO) 

14201 Creve Coeur Airport Rd.

Hangar K2

FAA Part 61 

Version 7 Updates:

3.8.1 All Aircraft now require a renter's policy carrying a minimum hull liability coverage of $10,000 to be carried by non-student renters

9.5.1 Credit Card Fee reduction for refund was increased from 3% to 3.5% due to increased fees from credit card processor. 

9.5.2 Credit Card Fee reduction for refund was increased from 3% to 3.5% due to increased fees from credit card processor. 

9.5.3 Credit Card Fee reduction for refund was increased from 3% to 3.5% due to increased fees from credit card processor.

9.6 Billable Hours For Meritize and non-meritize Zero to Hero Students has been defined has any hour they log in their logbook

9.6 Applied Section to students who have opted into our Zero to Hero program without using student loan financing through Meritize

9.7 Billable Hours For Meritize and non-meritize Zero to Hero Students has been defined has any hour they log in their logbook

9.7 Applied Section to students who have opted into our IFR to Hero program without using student loan financing through Meritize

9.8 Credit Card Fee reduction for refund was increased from 3% to 3.5% due to increased fees from credit card processor.

9.11 Added 9.11 Expenses Students/Renters are Responsible For

9.12 Added 9.12 Theft Policy

10. Changed term "Contractor" to "Signing Party"

10. Expanded usage permissions in item 2

10. Added item 4 - consent to photographed and videoed while on or in Piston Property.

Version 6 Updates:

3.8.1 N374EA at a 1.15 Factor

3.8.1 N5714F Factor Increased from 1.o to 1.1

4.11 N374EA Call Sign Added

Version 5 Updates:

3.8.1 Base Aircraft Rental Rate Increased from $175/Hr to $189/Hr. 

3.8.1 Pay as you Fly Rate Added

3.8.1 New Scheduling and Flight Time overage policy outlined

3.8.1 The Factor Rate for N33DH Increased from 1.0 to 1.1

9.5.1 Added 9.5.1 "Pay as you Go" Flight and Instructor Hour Refund Policy

9.5.2 Added 9.5.2 Block Hour Refund Policy

9.5.3 Added 9.5.3 Training Package Refund Policy

9.8 Accelerated Program Refund Policy Updated

9.9 Refund Policy for Pay as you Go Customers added

9.10 Added 9.10 Rental Membership Policies

Added Chapter 10 Media Release

Changed Chapter 10 COVID-19 Policy to Chapter 11 COVID-19 Policy

Version 4 Updates:

Sections 9.6 and 9.7 added pertaining to Meritize Student Loan Financing Refund Policies

Section 9.7 changed to 9.8

Version 3 Updates:

3.8.1 Base Aircraft Rental Rate Increased from $169/Hr to $175/Hr, Due to Fuel Cost and Insurance Rate Increases

9.4 Rental Hour Fixed Rate Period Changed from 24 months to 12 months

9.4 amended to allow for more flexible hour purchasing options after the initial hour purchase.

9.5.2.1 Non Refundable Portion of Packages remains same but wording of Section has changed to provide better explanation

9.5.1.3 Refund Timeline Defined

9.5.2.6 Refund Timeline Defined

9.5.1.2 & 9.5.1.3 changed to 9.5.1.3 and 9.5.1.4 respectively

9.5.1.2 Now defines refund policy for payments made using online credit issuers.

9.5.2.2 & 9.5.2.3 changed to 9.5.2.3 and 9.5.2.4 respectively

9.5.2.2 Now defines refund policy for payments made using online credit issuers.

Dear : 

Welcome to Piston Aviation LLC (Piston Aviation). The management and  professional staff of Piston Aviation would like to wish each of you a safe and successful aviation  career and experience. 

Piston Aviation is committed to providing a safe and resourceful environment for our  students to learn and train and our employees to work and advance. Accomplishing this  goal requires a strong partnership and the participation of everyone involved. Safety  policies and procedures have been developed and disseminated to ensure that every  available effort is being made towards creating a SAFE, FUN and accident-free  flight training environment. Courtesy, respect, situational awareness and  a high degree of motivation are fundamentals to our success. We are striving to provide  excellence and a personal touch to our flight training for our students. 

This flight operations publication contains regulations and safety policies and  procedures concerning all aspects of our flight operations and training. Material  contained within this manual applies to all flight students, renters, and staff conducting  flight training in our aircraft and flight simulators. Failure to comply with the content of  this manual will result in disciplinary action or suspension from the flight program. In  addition to the policies and procedures set within this manual, flight students and staff  must adhere to the provisions contained in the school’s respective FAA approved  Training Course Outlines (TCOs), specific pilot operating handbooks (POHs), aircraft  maneuvers manuals, Federal Aviation Administration Regulations (14 CFRs) and aircraft  checklists. 

The flight operations employees, renters, and students are required to be fully  aware and compliant with all regulations and safety policies and procedures outlined  within this manual and any revisions to be provided by the General Manager. 

It is the responsibility of all flight operations employees, renters, and students to  notify the General Manager of any errors or omissions within this manual. Suggested  changes or revisions may be submitted in writing. Requested deviations from this  manual may be approved by the General Manager or his or her designee. 

We wish you every success in your academic work, your flight training and your  experience at Piston Aviation LLC 

Joseph V. Ord

Pilot and Founder

1.1 Introduction 

Welcome to Piston Aviation. The staff of the Flight Department wishes each of you a safe and  fulfilling aviation career. Section 1 describes the flight training program at Piston Aviation,  including testing, grading, and course completion procedures.  

All flight training is overseen by the Chief Flight Instructor and Assistant Chief Flight  Instructor who are responsible for all flight courses. Students should become familiar  with their flight instructor (CFI) and Chief Flight Instructor early in each course and look  to him or her to answer any question or resolve any problems which may occur. The  Chief Flight Instructor is responsible for all facets of the flight training program and is  available to assist students when needed. 

In addition to the policies and procedures contained herein, all flight training must be  conducted in accordance with Piston Aviation’s FAA approved Training Course Outlines, Title 14  of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), the specific Flight Maneuvers Procedures, the  specific Pilot Operating Handbooks, Aircraft Flight Manuals, Checklists, and any other policies of Piston Aviation.  

All pilots should review this Flight Operations Manual and supplemental documents  as a normal preflight activity and prior to any flight training. In addition, all pilots must  have a Personal Limitation Checklist completed on file, a copy of which can be found in  Appendix A.  

Compliance with the rules and policies stated in these manual and other documents  stated above is mandatory. Failure to comply may result in disciplinary action, which  may include removal from the current Flight Training Course, or removal of Rental  privileges.   

1.2 Lesson Preparation 

The student, as well as the CFI, is obligated to adequately prepare for training  activities. Students are encouraged to use all flight related resources.  

Piston Aviation encourages the use of self directed online Ground Schools.  Students should use provided Gleim Course work materials and the online ground school to prepare for flights. If the student needs help understanding in the course work, he or she should schedule a ground session with their CFI.

1.3 Transfers 

When a student comes to Piston Aviation from another Flight Training operation, they will be required to complete at least two Dual Flights (with a Piston Aviation CFI) to assess the skill level of the student pilot and the proper placement within the Piston Aviation Flight Training Program.

1.4 Personnel 

It is Piston Aviation’s goal to provide the highest quality instruction and services. All CFI’s, Mechanics, and Representatives will conform to the  Piston Aviation Employee Handbook and Personnel and Policy Manual. 

The Chief Flight Instructor is recognized by the FAA as the person responsible  for all matters pertaining to the safety and training of all students, as well as the safety  and operation of all renter pilots. It is the duty of the Chief Flight Instructor to be  available at the flight facility or by telephone during all hours when flight training  operations are taking place. As a FAA Part 61 Flight School, Piston Aviation does not currently have a Chief Flight Instructor.

The CFI is always the student’s immediate contact for all issues and problems that   may arise. The CFI can be reached by Phone, text or email. If in the event the  CFI is not immediately available for any reason a message can be left for the CFI upon  their arrival to Piston Aviation.

1.5 Evaluation of Students 

The Student’s assigned CFI will determine the preparedness of each student on an individual basis, and make all decisions on training advancement through the Phases of the Piston Aviation training programs.

1.6 Airman Certification and/or Rating Application (IACRA) System 

For all student pilots, written test applicants, and practical tests, the FAA’s web-based  Integrated Airman Certification and/or Rating system (IACRA) is used for processing  airman application(s). This paperless application system allows for the immediate  issuance of the appropriate documentation depending upon the outcome of the practical  test and greatly reduces the time the FAA needs to issue a permanent certificate since the  IACRA system sends an applicant’s application (FAA form 8710-1) immediately to  Oklahoma City via the internet. 

All students and CFI’s must register on the FAA IACRA website in order to utilize this system. To register, go the following website: https://iacra.faa.gov/iacra/ 

The system will then assign you an FTN (FAA Tracking Number). In addition, you  must create a username and password. Please record your FTN, username, and password  in a safe place (i.e. logbook) for future reference. You will be required to provide this  information to generate and submit airman applications and conduct practical tests. 

1.7 Student/CFI assignments 

The assignment of a CFI to a student will primarily be based on three factors.

  1. The type of aircraft the student wishes to primarily operate.
  2. The current availability and student load of the CFI
  3. The time and schedule constraints of the Student and which CFIs schedule best meets the student’s proposed schedule

CFI Re-assignments may occur for the following reasons. 

  • CFI Resignation 
  • CFI change requested by the student 
  • Lack of progress in student training 
  • Any other reasons as deemed appropriate by Piston Aviation

Piston Aviation will identify a CFI for reassignment based upon  student/CFI availability and the student’s history in the course. If delays in reassignment  are anticipated, Piston Aviation will notify the student and give a reasonable estimate when a CFI will be available. Once a CFI has been identified, a Piston Aviation representative  will meet with both the current and new CFI simultaneously to discuss student  status, progress in the course, etc. 

A Piston Aviation Representative will coordinate a common meeting time with the student  and the new CFI to answer any questions the student or new CFI may have. In the case  of multiple student reassignments from one CFI to another and a common meeting time  cannot be established, Piston Aviation will contact each student by telephone, text and/or e-mail to prevent delays in training. 

1.8 Required Documents 

For all training except sport pilot training, prior to flight training all students must obtain an FAA Class III or  higher medical certificate. The student must complete all paperwork as required by  Piston Aviation. This includes proof of citizenship endorsement as required by the Transportation  and Security Administration (TSA) or the Alien Flight Students Program (AFSP) for non  US citizens seeking a Sport Pilot, Private Pilot, or Instrument Rating. 

In addition, all students are required to purchase the required materials for the course in which they are enrolled. 

1.9 Aircraft Maintenance Records 

Aircraft maintenance records for each aircraft utilized by the flight school, are kept electronically through Sky List Pro and hard copy is located in the main office of Piston Aviation. Aircraft maintenance records  are kept up to date by maintenance department staff and are accessible during normal business hours. Aircraft records may be accessed and reviewed at any time during normal  business hours by Piston Aviation employees, flight instructors, customers with  aircraft rental privileges, FAA personnel, or designated pilot examiners. Aircraft  maintenance records may also be accessed and reviewed outside of normal business hours by appointment. The removal of maintenance records from the main office is prohibited unless the aircraft maintenance record sign-out procedure is followed. 

The removal of aircraft maintenance records from the maintenance office is only  permitted under the following circumstances: 

  1. As part of routine ground or flight instructional purposes conducted by an  authorized flight instructor employed by Piston Aviation that take place  outside of the maintenance office;  
  2. To demonstrate aircraft administrative airworthiness prior to a required practical  test or to demonstrate knowledge of administrative airworthiness during a required practical test; or  
  3. To determine or verify administrative airworthiness of an aircraft prior to the  operation of that aircraft or as part of an FAA inspection procedure.

An Aircraft Maintenance Record Sign-out sheet is located near the cabinet that  stores all company aircraft maintenance records. A line entry must be completed properly  and entirely prior to the removal of any record from the Maintenance Office. Failure to  properly sign out a maintenance record prior to removing it from the maintenance office  is a violation of Piston Aviation company policy and in some cases could be  considered a violation of FAA regulations or federal law. Each maintenance record shall  be returned to office as soon as practicable and within 24 hours of its removal; removing  a maintenance record for more than 24 hours requires additional approval by the Director  of Maintenance. Failure or inability to completely return any maintenance record, or any  damage or loss of a maintenance record must be immediately reported to the Chief Flight  Instructor, or director of maintenance. Upon return of a borrowed maintenance record,  the person responsible for that record shall return it directly to a maintenance department  employee and verify that the return is properly indicated on the sign-out sheet.  Responsibility of the custody and for the proper return of a borrowed maintenance record  cannot be transferred; the person that signed out the maintenance record is directly  responsible for its return. 

Instructions on how to properly complete the sign out sheet are located next to the  sign out sheet in the Main Office. 

1.10 English Language Standards 

In accordance with the current version of Advisory Circular 60-28 all students and  renters must be English Proficient. It is up to the CFI performing the aircraft checkout or  training to determine if the Student or Renter meets the English Proficient definition as outlined in the above referenced advisory circular. Student pilots who do not meet this  standard must be referred to the local Flight Standards District Office for evaluation.

Chapter 2-Aviation Safety  

2.1 Philosophy  

The primary philosophy of the Aviation Safety Program is one of accident  prevention, education, research, and communication. The Aviation Safety Program also  supports provisions for accident response and investigation when needed. The Aviation  Safety Program is administered by the head of Piston Aviation, Joseph Ord.  

2.2 Hazard Identification Program  

The Hazard Identification Program is the foundation for accident prevention and  safety awareness. The Hazard Identification Program has been designed to promote  identification of actual or potential hazards. The effectiveness of this program depends  on the free, unrestricted flow of information from everyone including CFI’s, students,  staff and maintenance personnel. Hazard reports provide a method by which Piston Aviation can track potentially hazardous occurrences. All hazard reports submitted, via the “Flight Operation Incident Reporting Form”, will be placed into the  Safety Reporting System Database. The hard copy of each report will be kept on file.  Personal identification on the form is optional, however, if feedback is requested it will be necessary. Any safety concern, even those which seem insignificant should be  documented. Forms are available in the F.B.O / Flight Lounge. They have  been designed to be simple and take only minutes to fill out. Once complete, the Hazard  Report should be submitted to a Piston Aviation Representative via e-mail or online form submission. Participation in this  program (by everyone) is critical to the safety of our flight environment. 

2.3 Dissemination of Safety Related Information  

There will be monthly Safety Meetings at which all CFI’s will be briefed on any relevant safety issues at this time and are required to pass this information on to their students. Similar meetings will be held each month with line and Piston Aviation Management personnel in order to pass similar information along. 

Chapter 3-Scheduling 

3.1 Sky List Pro 

Sky List Pro is a web-based system used for scheduling, logging and  planning all flight activities for Piston Aviation. It is the responsibility of all students and CFI’s to register for the Piston Aviation online scheduling program in order to keep track of all activities.  Instructions on how to use it will be provided by the Piston Aviation Staff.  

3.2 General  

No person may schedule or conduct a rental or any kind of training session unless  their Sky List Pro account is completed. Each customer must have completed  their user profile, have an emergency contact on file, a valid photo ID, Medical  Certificate if required, Pilot Certificate, and in the preceding year have signed an Aircraft Rental Agreement and have a current Personal Limitations Checklist on file. 

All training/rental activities (flight, orals, ground training sessions and observer  flights) will be scheduled according to the student’s agreed upon flight block and any  additional availability provided, or as requested by the renter. It is the student’s  responsibility to inform his/her CFI of any changes in their availability.

All scheduling is done on a 1st come, first serve basis, with the following priorities applied. 

  1. FAA Check rides 
  2. Student Lessons – if multiple lessons are scheduled priority will  be given to the lesson that was scheduled first. 
  3. Rentals – if multiple rentals are scheduled priority will be given  to the renter that was scheduled first. 

Customers are personally responsible for checking the schedule daily and being  present for their lesson or rental at the scheduled time. If the activity time is  misunderstood or is mistakenly related over the phone, either of which results in a student  no-show, the responsibility rests with the scheduled student.  

 CFI's are required to schedule regularly within the student’s agreed upon flight  block and within any additional availability in order to maintain continuity of training.  Delays in training have caused many students thousands of dollars of extra costs in  completing a flight course. Therefore, strict scheduling, cancellation, no-show, and  grounding policies are enforced.  

CFI’s are required to schedule within the following guidelines: 

  • Schedule regularly, with no breaks and within the student’s registered flight  section and any additional availability provided. 

3.3 Extended Leaves 

If a student is planning on being gone for an extended period of time, it is his/her responsibility to make sure they cancel any previously scheduled flight times or rentals during that time period.  Any scheduled flight that remains on the schedule during a student or renter's leave, will result in a no-show.

3.4 Schedule Modifications 

Upon mutual agreement between the CFI and student, the CFI can check aircraft  availability for a particular time. If there is an aircraft available, the CFI may schedule  aircraft for that time frame. 

3.5 Cancellations 

The flight schedule is considered firm at 1700 on the day before the activity. The  Customer may cancel a scheduled activity for a LEGITIMATE REASON. Students  must inform their CFI of any necessary upcoming schedule irregularities as soon as  possible to preclude a cancellation or no-show. 

  • A legitimate reason can be considered CFI illness, unable to return from a  previous activity due to mechanical problems, aircraft availability, or weather. 

3.6 No Shows (Unexcused Absence) 

Pilots must use and manage time effectively. Resources of Piston Aviation must be used to  maximize service to all customers of Piston Aviation. Therefore, the following no-show policy is  in effect. Customers will check in for all activities no later than 5 minutes prior to the scheduled departure time. 

If, for a medical reason a customer feels unfit to fly, the customer shall contact the main office of Piston Aviation and their CFI, if applicable. In addition to impacting the continuity  of training and proficiency, no-shows are costly to Piston Aviation due to under-utilization of resources. Therefore, a no-show penalty will be assessed for each no-show activity. For flight lessons or rentals you will be billed for one hour of Flight Instruction and for one half (50%) of the standard rate of the aircraft to be used. 

CFI’s will be no-showed if they fail to arrive by the scheduled activity time. If  circumstances beyond the control of the CFI, such as in-flight weather or mechanical  difficulties away from base, cause the CFI to be late, they will notify the main office of Piston Aviation as soon as SAFELY possible.

Customers who are no-showed will receive notifications as soon as practical,  either via email, text or telephone call to the customer. The customer can appeal the no-show  up to 7 days from the date of the no-show in writing to management. 

For Flight Lessons or rentals you will be billed for one hour of Flight  Instruction and for one hour of half the standard rate for the airplane you  scheduled in at the currently published rates. For Ground Lessons you will be  billed for one hour of Flight Instruction. 

If you arrive 30 minutes or later than your scheduled block, your plane may be  dispatched to another pilot. If the plane is dispatched to you, please make sure you return  by the end of your block so the next rental pilot will not be inconvenienced.    

All decisions to excuse a no show must be approved by Piston Aviation Management

3.7 Grounding (Excused Absence) 

Customers may be prohibited from participating in Piston Aviation flight activities for  financial, operational, or medical reasons. Prohibition of flight activities for any reason  is referred to as grounded (absent from the schedule) for more than 30 consecutive days.

Financial Grounding - Customers will be grounded for  failing to settle an account. 

Operational Grounding - Customers and CFI’s will be grounded for violations  of any FAA regulations or any Piston Aviation operating policy until the situation has been  resolved. Any customer or CFI who is involved in an aircraft accident or incident will be  grounded. This grounding does not assign the blame to any particular party, but is a  precautionary grounding until the cause has been determined. 

Medical Grounding - If, for medical reasons a student feels unfit to fly, the  student shall contact their CFI at least 15 minutes prior to the activity. If the CFI is  unreachable the student shall contact the main office of Piston Aviation and leave a voicemail if  the phone is unanswered. If this procedure is not followed, the no-show petition will not  be signed by the CFI or Piston Aviation Representative. When the student feels well  enough to resume flight activities, they must inform their CFI to be  removed from the grounded status.  

3.8 Aircraft Rental  

Piston Aviation offers the rental of aircraft for the purpose of maintaining  

proficiency/currency. All renter flights must comply with FAA and Piston Aviation regulations,  and the provisions of the Piston Aviation Aircraft Rental Agreement. Except in the case of aircraft  rented for the purpose of taking an FAA check ride, aircraft rentals will not be scheduled  or reserved since flight training activities have priority. Aircraft rented for flights outside  the local area or to a distant airport must be specifically approved by the Management of Piston Aviation or his or her designee if to an airport not in the approved list as found in section  8.9 of this manual.  

Renting a Piston Aviation Aircraft for Flights into IMC is currently not allowed under any circumstance even if the renting pilot is IFR rated.   

Aircraft can be rented for flights that will require an overnight stay. However,  the aircraft must be flown for a minimum of 3 hours per a day for each day after the  first day or a minimum of 4 hours per day on weekends and holidays. 

Overnight flights must be booked a minimum of 14 days in advance.

All customers and employees are eligible to rent aircraft. Those desiring to rent  aircraft must be standardized and current in the make and model of the aircraft being  rented. 

No customer may allow a pilot who is not approved by Piston Aviation to pilot the aircraft  as PIC at anytime. Flight instruction by a CFI who is not an employee of Piston Aviation is  strictly prohibited in Piston Aviation airplanes and can result in loss of rental privileges. 

 Stalls and Emergency Procedures are strictly prohibited from being conducted without a Piston Aviation approved CFI on board.  

At the conclusion of the rental a customer will provide Piston Aviation with a copy of  any receipt for fuel and will have an invoice e-mailed to them for immediate payment by Credit Card or ACH for no fees. If the invoice is not paid by the end of  the business day Piston Aviation will process the credit card on file and add the processing  fee. Any time a Piston Aviation employee processes a Credit Card a 3% fee will be added to  each invoice.  

Piston Aviation Rental Rates are “Wet” rates so any fuel receipts presented will be deducted from the final invoice up to the current Per Gallon 100LL rate being charged at Piston Aviation’s Home Airport, Creve Coeur Airport - 1H0

3.8.1 Rental Rates

Piston Aviation LLC sets a Baseline Rental Rate for all Aircraft, which is the minimum rental rate at which all pricing is set.  

As of the Date of your viewing of this document, the Baseline Rental Rate is:

$189/Hr "Wet"

"Wet" means fuel from the aircrafts home base of 1H0 is included.  if fuel is required on a flight from another airfield, you will be reimbursed at the price per gallon, that 1H0 is charging at the time of purchase.

"Pay as you Fly" Rate: The Pay as you Go Rate is the Baseline Rental Rate.

All Hours must be pre-purchased prior to Flight.  This can be done through Piston Aviation's Online Scheduler.  A minimum of 2 Flight Hours is required to be on a customer's account to be able to schedule a flight. Flight Hour Usage is based on Aircraft Hobbs Time.  Unused flight hours will remain in customer's account for use on future Flights.  Flight Time usage based on aircraft Hobbs time that goes over clients account balance will be immediately invoiced to client at the "Pay as you Fly" rate.

A specific aircraft is given a factor rate based on cost of operation, that will be multiplied by the number of Hobbs hours used during a flight to determine the cost of the rental time used.

Current Factor Rates of Piston Aviation Aircraft:

N9961W: 1.0

N3668K: 1.0

N5714F: 1.1

N571FA: 1.0

N33DH: 1.1

N445LM: 1.1

N5677W: 1.1

N374EA: 1.15

N47AM:  2.0

Example Calculation: The Bristell (N445LM) is rented for a flight of 1.3 hours, the renter has pre purchase a block of 5 flight hours.

1.3 is multiplied by 1.1, so total of 1.43 hours will be counted against the block of 5 pre-purchased hours.

5-1.43 = 3.57 = Hours remaining for Renter to use

Piston Aviation LLC reserves the right to change the baseline rental rate and Aircraft Factor Rates without notice.

3.9 Liability for Damage to Aircraft 

The pilot-in-command is responsible for his/her aircraft from the time the aircraft  is released by Piston Aviation until the aircraft is returned, final Hobbs time is recorded and Flight time is paid for if Student or Renter is not Prepaid.  Any damage occurring to an aircraft is to be reported in accordance with paragraph 4.4 of this manual. Persons damaging aircraft may, at the discretion of  Piston Aviation, be held liable monetarily for repairs required due to damage if in the opinion of  Piston Aviation the damage occurred because of improper procedures, failure to adhere to the rules  and regulations of Piston Aviation, failure to adhere to FAA regulations and accepted procedure,  or negligence. Any unreported damage discovered on an aircraft will become the  responsibility of the last person to fly the aircraft. Piston Aviation will reimburse a customer for  repair bills that are mechanical in nature, including tires, unless said repairs are as a result  of customer negligence or failure to follow the manufacturers or Piston Aviation policies. It is  imperative, therefore, that a thorough preflight and post flight inspection be made before  and following each flight and that if any damage is discovered it be reported to the  Piston Aviation Management immediately. 

Piston Aviation has hull and liability insurance.  Deductibles for the insurance vary between the aircraft.  The deductibles are as follows:

N9961W - $10,000

N5677W - $10,000

N5714F - $10,000

M445LM - $10,000

N517FA - $10,000

N3668K - $10,000

N33DH - $10,000

N374EA - $10000

N47AM - $10,000

3.10 Observers in Aircraft  

Observers will be allowed in aircraft when flight lessons are being conducted only  with the consent of both the student and CFI for who will be conducting that lesson and  with pre approval of Piston Aviation management. At no point in time will any person under  the age of 18 be allowed to observe any Piston Aviation flight training activities without written  consent from that person’s parent(s) or legal guardian. Observers can only be authorized for dual flight activities. 

3.11 Returning to Piston Aviation Operations after Closing 

The renter will return the aircraft to Hangar K2 and park aircraft in the hangar using the provided keycode to the hangar.  Keys will be left on the pilot seat of the aircraft and a full post flight walk around using skylist pro will be performed and flight time paid for using sky list pro, if not already prepaid.  The renter will shut off all lights in the hangar and lock the door when leaving.  

Note: Hangar K2 is fully under surveillance with security cameras 24/7

Chapter 4-Ramp Operations  

4.1 General 

The ramp area is a potentially hazardous area and safety must be the prime  consideration when conducting activities in this area. The ramp area is a location where  considerable activity may be present as aircraft are taxiing, fuel and maintenance trucks  are moving about, and pilots and mechanics come and go to the aircraft. Only personnel  who have specific duties to perform should access the ramp, all others should remain  clear. Non-Line or Maintenance Personnel should not interfere with Line operations  in any way as this could cause a hazardous situation. 

When approaching an airplane, it should be approached from the rear. Always  remain clear of propellers and assume that they are going to turn unexpectedly at any  moment.  

4.2 Fueling and Line Service  

In order to save time when assigned an aircraft for a flight, the fuel and oil  quantities should be checked after arriving at the aircraft and before starting the preflight  inspection. 

For Students, your CFI will determine the need to fuel the aircraft after each flight.  When you solo fly, you should always fill the tanks to the level at which you saw during your preflight.  If at 1H0 tell the line representative that you are with Piston Aviation.  When on solo flights or long cross countries and fuel is needed at other airports, you will be responsible to pay for the fuel at the other airport.  You may submit your fuel receipt for reimbursement up to the current cost of 100LL at Creve Coeur Airport. 

Fueling operations are potentially dangerous. When fueling operations are going  on, stay clear of the aircraft, ensure that no one is in the aircraft, that all electrical  switches and ignition switches are off, that the aircraft is properly grounded, and that  nothing flammable is in the area where the fueling process is taking place.  

4.3 Smoking  

Smoking on the ramp, in the aircraft, inside the hangar is prohibited.  You may smoke in the designated smoking area at the rear of Hangar K2.  

4.4 Maintenance 

All aircraft must be in an airworthy condition before flying. Federal Aviation  Regulations require that all installed equipment on an aircraft must be functioning  properly before an aircraft is considered to meet the specifications of its type  certification. It is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command to ensure that the aircraft to  be flown is in an airworthy condition. In addition to the “walk around,” the PIC must  verify that all required inspections have been performed and that none will become due  during the course of the planned flight. 

All maintenance items written up through Sky List Pro must be  either repaired or signed off by maintenance before the next flight or be specifically deferred until the next maintenance event. Items that may be deferred by the  maintenance department until the next maintenance event: 

  • Must not be part of the VFR day type certification instruments or equipment  required by the aircraft’s certification;  
  • Must not be indicated as required on the aircraft equipment list (see section 6 of  the aircraft’s POH); 
  • Must not be required by 14 CFR 91.205 for the specific kind of flight operation  being conducted; and; 
  • Must not be required to be operational by any airworthiness directive applicable  to that aircraft. 

When maintenance or repair of an instrument or piece of equipment must be  deferred, it must be deactivated and placarded “Inoperative” in accordance with the  provisions of 14 CFR Part 43. If the aircraft is away from home base, a determination  must be made by the pilot-in-command of the aircraft that the inoperative instrument or  piece of equipment is not required and that its deactivation does not constitute a hazard to  the aircraft for the remainder of the flight. 

The Aircraft Inspection Summary lists all inspections that are required on the  aircraft and the date or tachometer time when the inspection is due. It is the  responsibility of the pilot-in-command to check during the preflight inspection to ensure  that no inspection comes due during the planned flight. In the event that the aircraft has  25 hours or less tachometer time remaining until the next inspection event is due, the  dispatcher will place a warning sheet inside the Aircraft clipboard at the beginning of the  flying day. This sheet will list the tachometer time beyond which the aircraft cannot be 

flown until the inspection event is completed. Each pilot-in-command flying that aircraft  will then list the tachometer time at the end of each flight and the tachometer time  remaining before the inspection is due. Prior to each flight, each pilot-in-command will  ensure that there is sufficient time left before the inspection event in which to accomplish  the planned flight. If there is not, the planned flight must be cut short or another aircraft  must be requested from dispatch. 

It is extremely important that inspection times are complied with and not over  flown. The Federal Aviation Administration is very specific about the requirement to  abide by required inspection times. Any pilot that flies a Piston Aviation' aircraft contrary to any  of the specifications above is operating that aircraft in violation of the Federal Aviation  Regulations and the policies of Piston Aviation. 

If an aircraft is equipped with VOR, VOR log lists when the last VOR accuracy tests were conducted on the  aircraft. 

Sky List Pro will be used by the pilot at the beginning of  each flight. The pilot-in-command, prior to beginning the flight, will review maintenance  item write-ups completed, check the status of recurring inspections, and check the  inspection status of the VORs if they are going to be used for instrument operations. The  PIC will retain the clipboard in the aircraft throughout the course of the flight. At the end  of the flight, any discrepancies that may have been discovered or actions taken that  should be recorded will be entered on the Aircraft Discrepancy Form. 

All maintenance condition write-ups must be described completely and accurately  to facilitate an intelligent analysis of the condition by the maintenance supervisor or his representative. Pilots must be specific about what is wrong. Accurate and concise write ups will mean faster repair and less down time. At the end of the flight, a Sky List Pro form will be submitted.  If a discrepancy has been entered, the form entry will be  turned in to maintenance and the aircraft grounded until corrective maintenance action  can be accomplished by the maintenance supervisor or his representative. 

4.5 Boarding and Deplaning 

All doors or canopies must be opened and closed in accordance with the aircrafts  current POH. If you are unsure how to properly secure the canopies or door ask a  maintenance technician or line personnel. 

Because of the inherent dangers associated with spinning propellers, no one will  approach, board, or deplane from Piston Aviation' aircraft with the engine(s) running. Flight CFI’s initiating a supervised solo flight will taxi the aircraft to a point on the airport where the  aircraft can be shutdown before the CFI deplanes and likewise before (s) he boards again. 

4.6 Starting 

Before starting an engine, all pilots must ensure that the propeller area is clear.  Visually check the area in all directions to clear the propeller arc as well as the prop blast  area behind the aircraft. In addition, the pilot will call “CLEAR” and then wait for any  response prior to turning on the magneto switches and engaging the starter. If fueling  operations are in effect at the adjacent aircraft, pilots will wait until the fueling is  completed before starting the engine.  

The rotating beacon should be turned on prior to starting the engine in order to  alert anyone nearby that an engine is about to start. At night the navigation lights as well  as the rotating beacon should be turned on prior to starting. Also at night, if the aircraft is  equipped with white strobes only and no rotating beacon; do not activate the strobes until  taxiing onto the active runway. 

During warm weather operations or when additional ventilation is desired inside  aircraft without side windows capable of being opened, i.e. PA-28, a common practice is  to open the aircraft door(s) to provide for better cooling and ventilation of the cabin. To  prevent damage to the door stop mechanism caused by propeller blast, pilots will ensure  that during engine starting and taxiing, aircraft doors are either securely shut or are  manually held OFF the door step mechanism. Aircraft doors will NOT be locked in the  full open position during engine starting and/or taxiing.  

Hand Propping 

Hand propping of Piston Aviation' aircraft is prohibited. If the pilot is unable to start the  engine, (s) he should notify Piston Aviation Management. Maintenance personnel will be notified.

Cold Weather Starting Procedures 

When temperatures fall below 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius), it is much more  difficult to start aircraft engines. Cold weather starting procedures will be followed when  the ambient temperature falls below 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius) and the engine is  cold to the touch. In addition, pilots will ensure that all lifting surfaces, to include the  windscreen are clear of all ice or frost prior to starting the aircraft for the purpose of flight. If engine will not start: Do not make another attempt. Seek assistance from  maintenance. Do not run down the battery in an attempt to start a cold engine. See the  appropriate POH for cold weather starting procedures. 

Preheating 

When temperatures are below 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius) all Piston Aviation aircraft  not equipped with a block heater that are operating must be preheated by certified line  personnel who are specifically trained to preheat airplanes prior to attempting to start the  engine. During preheating all electrical switches and magnetos must be in the off  position and the airplane properly secured. In addition, if the airplane is equipped with a  block heater or blanket these items must be reinstalled at the end of each flight lesson unless instructed Piston Aviation Management. The blanket when removed for  flight should be placed in the aircraft baggage area. 

Use of Pitot Heat 

Pitot heat should not be activated on stationary aircraft for purposes other than  checking for proper operation. Use of pitot heat without airflow over the pitot tube will  reduce heater element life and will create unnecessary hazards such as igniting de-icing  fluid or causing serious burns to personnel contacting the hot probe. Pitot heat is to be used only for airborne operations (just prior to takeoff). Pitot heat shall not be turned on  for extended periods on the ground.  

Windscreen Care during De-icing Procedures 

Scraping windscreens with credit cards, ice scrapers, etc., scratches the  windscreen therefore decreasing the effectiveness of vision outside the aircraft creating a  hazard with regard to collision avoidance. 

Frost and ice is to be removed using glycol propylene. Scraping of any surface on  the aircraft with abrasive materials (including credit cards and scrapers) is prohibited. 

4.7 Taxiing 

As the aircraft moves out of the tie down position, brakes on the pilot’s side and the passenger’s side (on dual flights) should be tested to ensure they operate correctly.  

Taxi speed on the ramps and in the vicinity of other aircraft will be no faster than  a walk. Particular care will be used when taxiing in close quarters to ensure adequate  clearance between aircraft. All Piston Aviation aircraft will taxi with the nose wheel centered on the yellow taxiway centerline at all times, unless necessary to deviate to avoid obstacles  on or near the taxiway.  

Pilots should be aware that adherence to the centerline does not always guarantee  obstacle/wingtip clearance, and constant vigilance and slow forward speed should be  maintained when near other aircraft or obstacles. 

4.8 Flat Tires 

If a flat tire is encountered at any point in time while on the ground or directly  after takeoff no further ground movement or landing should be attempted until contacting  Piston Aviation Management or their designee to await their instructions to the safest  course of action to both the airplane and pilot. 

Correct PSI for Tires 

Aircraft Type Nose & Main Gear Pressures

PA28-140, Piper Cherokee 140: PSI 24 PSI 

PA28-160, Piper Cherokee 160: PSI 24 PSI

BE19, Beechcraft Musketeer: PSI 35 PSI

Bristell 912 ULS: PSI 32 to 35 PSI

SR20: Nose: 60 PSI, Mains: 80 PSI

4.9 Parking/Securing 

The tail tie down is to be removed and placed by the right wing tie down in order  to prevent potential hazards when pulling the aircraft into a parking spot. If the tie down  is a rope then it can be kept secured to the ground but use extreme caution when taxing  forward near the tie down. The same applies if an aircraft was tied down previously in  front of your airplane. 

When parking aircraft on the Piston Aviation ramp, pilots will ensure the nose gear remains on the centerline of the tie down pad and that no portion of the nose gear extends beyond  the front edge of the pad.  

After shutdown, install the control lock and complete the “Securing Aircraft”  Checklist 

Tie downs (tail and both wings if available) will be properly attached to Piston Aviation  aircraft any time the aircraft is left unattended for extended periods of time. Rope Chocks will  be used on Piston Aviation aircraft at airports where tie-downs are not available. Rope Chocks or at least  one tie-down will be attached any time the aircraft is left unattended momentarily.  Rope Chocks will remain in the aircraft when not in use and will be stored in the baggage compartment.  

When exiting the aircraft, ensure that all switches are off, and all trash and  personal items are removed from the aircraft. In addition, all Rudder or Gust Locks must be installed. All doors and windows must be closed and the Sky List Pro post flight checklist form submitted and key  should be returned to the Piston Aviation Management. 

4.10 Aircraft and Simulator Care 

It is the pilot’s responsibility to help keep the aircraft and ramp areas free of  debris. At no time, with the exception of bottled water, will any food or beverages be  permitted on the ramp or in any Piston Aviation' aircraft. Anything brought into the aircraft shall  be removed at the end of the flight. Materials for cleaning windows and windshields are  available in Hangar K2. Use of cleaning materials other than those provided may result in  damage to the Plexiglass and therefore should not be used. Trash should be removed  from the aircraft, regardless of who left it there. Loose trash in airplanes has caused  many accidents in general aviation by binding control movement or distracting the pilot.  Think of the next pilot who will use that aircraft and leave it in a clean and neat  condition. 

There will be no food or drink allowed in or near the simulators.  Food and Drink (besides bottled water) should be limited to the upstairs area of Hangar K2.  When drinking water during simulator time please step away from the simulator area at least 5 feet, to prevent accential water spillage on Simulator and computer equipment.

4.11 Call Signs 

Aircraft call signs “tail number” are to be used in their entirety at all times.  Call Signs for each aircraft shall be stated as follows:

PA28-140: “Cherokee Niner Niner Six One Whiskey”

PA28-140: "Cherokee Tree Six Six Eight Kilo"

PA28-140/160: "Cherokee Fife Seven One Four Foxtrot"

PA28-160: “Cherokee Fife Six Seven Seven Whiskey”

Bristell 912 ULS: “Bristell Fife One Seven Foxtrot Alpha”

Bristell 912 ULS: "Bristell Four Four Fife Lima Mike"

Tomark SD4 Viper: "Viper Tree Seven Four Echo Alpha"

Beechcraft Musketeer BE19 "Musketeer Tree Tree Delta Hotel"

SR20: "Cirrus Four Seven Alpha Mike"

4.12 Dry Time 

CFI’s often assign students to practice aircraft cockpit procedures while seated in  an aircraft parked on the ramp. This exercise is called “Dry Time.” The purpose is to  reinforce learning through recognition and repetition of in-flight procedures. Students  will be authorized to practice dry time procedures based upon aircraft availability. Flight  activities will have priority at all times 

The following dry time procedures will be adhered to: 

  1. When a student wishes to use a Piston Aviation aircraft for dry time, Piston Aviation Management will exchange the aircraft keys for the student’s driver’s license. If a  student does not have a driver’s license or does not want to give it to  Piston Aviation, they will not be given the keys to the aircraft. Piston Aviation will return the driver’s license upon receipt of the aircraft keys. 
  2. The aircraft must remain tied down and chocked during all dry time  procedures. 
  3. All dry time procedures will be simulated. UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES  WILL THE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM BE ACTIVATED. MIXTURE,  PROPELLER, THROTTLE, AND GEAR HANDLE CONTROLS WILL  NOT BE MOVED. 
  4. When dry time practice is complete, students will ensure that the aircraft is  secured. This includes locking the doors and performing a 360 degree walk  around to verify the aircraft is properly moored.

Chapter 5-Local Operations 

5.1 General 

This section contains procedures for operations in the local area, including those  airports located in the practice areas that are approved for use by Piston Aviation aircraft. Local  operations include flights from Creve Coeur Airport (1H0) into the designated practice  areas..  Student Pilots must remain within 25 nautical miles of their home base, and must have a  logbook endorsement from their flight CFI in order to fly solo to outlying airports.  

Any flight that intends to proceed outside of the practice area must file a flight  plan with the FAA and leave a copy of that flight plan with the Piston Aviation Management before departing. Flight plans need not be filed for operations to  approved outlying airports within the practice area. 

5.2 Dispatch Procedures 

 When arriving for a flight, the customer should first check the weather to  determine if the flight can be accomplished under the existing and forecast conditions.  Piston Aviation has iPads with Foreflight loaded so that a pilot may obtain information on the local  weather conditions.  

All customer pilots must complete a risk assessment form, performance form  and Weight & Balance form and e-mail or give a printed copy to the Piston Aviation Management in order to be dispatched.  

 Dispatch of a flight shall be determined by the Piston Aviation Management Representative after consideration of current and forecasted weather conditions. Piston Aviation Management Representative will ensure that the weather conditions meet or exceed the limitations set  forth herein: 

  • DUAL: VFR Flight Lessons “All Weather Minimums Forecast to  improve” 
  1. Traffic Pattern (Dual): 2,000’ AGL ceiling and 3 sm  visibility. 
  2. Practice Area (Dual): 2,500’ AGL ceiling and 5 sm  visibility. 
  3. Cross Country (Dual): 3,500’ AGL ceiling and 5 sm  visibility. 
  4. Maximum Surface Wind for Dual:25 knots (not to be exceeded in any  case); crosswind component: not to exceed aircraft maximum  demonstrated crosswind; gust factor not to exceed 15 knots. 
  5. Flights conducted in Customer owned airplanes may be  conducted in excess of the wind minimums stated above so long as the CFI’s Personal Limitations on file are not exceeded. However,  extreme caution should be exercised and a discussion should take  place of what the owners personal limitations are for flying their  aircraft. 

For example, a dual flight could be performed with a reported wind of 10 knots,  gusting to 25 knots with a cross wind component of 12 knots (in a PA28-140).

  •  SOLO: VFR Flight Lesson “All Weather Minimums Forecast to  improve” 
  1. Traffic Pattern (Solo): 2,000’ AGL ceiling and 5 sm  visibility. 
  2. Practice Area (Solo): 3,000’ AGL ceiling and 7 sm  visibility. 
  3. Cross Country (Solo): 5,000’ AGL ceiling and 10 sm  visibility. 
  4. Maximum Surface Wind for Solo:17 knots (not to be exceeded in any  case); crosswind component: 10 knots (not to exceed aircraft limitations);  gust factor not to exceed 10 knots. 

For example, a solo flight could be performed with a reported wind of 10 knots,  gusting to 17 knots with a cross wind component of 10 knots (not to exceed aircraft limitations).

  • DUAL IFR Flights: “All Weather Minimums Forecast to improve” 

The take off minimums for dual IFR training flights will be an 800’ ceiling and 2  SM visibility or greater at the time of departure for all airports of intended use. 

Alternate airport requirements for all IFR Cross Country: An alternate must be  listed in accordance with 14 CFR 91.167(b).  

14 CFR 91.167(b) states that: 

 (b) Paragraph (a)(2) of this section does not apply if: 

(1) Part 97 of this chapter prescribes a standard instrument approach  procedure to, or a special instrument approach procedure has been issued  by the Administrator to the operator for, the first airport of intended  landing; and 

  1. “Appropriate weather reports or weather forecasts, or a  

combination of them, indicate the following 

  1. For aircraft other then helicopters. For at least 1 hour  

before and for 1 hour after the estimated time of arrival, the  

ceiling will be at least 2,000 feet above the airport elevation  

and the visibility will be at least 3 statute miles. 

The alternate airport listed must have weather minimums that are reporting at  least 1,000’ ceilings and 3 SM visibility. 

Weather Minimums for all flights are based upon current and/or forecast  conditions, obtained through ASOS, AWOS, METAR, TAF, FA, AIRMETS,  SIGMETS and/or CONVECTIVE SIGMETS. If these minimums are exceeded  during the course of a flight due to unforecasted conditions, the flight shall divert  or terminate as soon as practicable. 

Reducing the above limits can only be accomplished with prior permission from  a Piston Aviation Flight Instructor.

  •  Renter Flight Minimums 
  1. All renters must have a current Piston Aviation Annual Flight Review. b. If in the preceding six (6) Calendar Months a renter has performed less  than or equal to 10 hours in an aircraft of the same category and class  then, they will be subject to the solo weather minimums as prescribed  above. 
  2. If in the preceding six (6) Calendar Months a renter has performed greater  than 10 hours in an aircraft of the same category and class then, they will  be subject to the dual weather minimums as prescribed above. 
  3. IFR Rental weather minimums must be at least 100’ above the minimums  of the approach to be used in case an immediate return to their departure  airport is required.

5.3 Fuel Requirements 

All local duals, local solos and dual flights to the outlying fields must have  sufficient fuel to complete the flight and still have a 1 hour reserve at normal cruise  speed. For the purpose of fuel requirements, LOCAL means flights that remain within  the boundaries of the practice area. All other flights, except dual flights to outlying  fields, are considered cross-country flights and fall under the provisions of this manual. 

5.4 Adherence to Scheduled Flight Times 

It is extremely important that the customer and/or CFI utilize the aircraft within  scheduled times. The planned flight must be back at the scheduled return time (10  minutes prior to the end of the scheduled period) as another customer will be waiting for  the aircraft. If a departure delay is encountered, the pilot may request an extension of the  due-back time prior to departure. If possible, the request will be granted. If not, the  aircraft must return at the scheduled due-back time. If during a flight, an extension of a  flight period is needed, the request for the extension should be made to Piston Aviation Management no later than 30 minutes before the due back time. If the extension cannot  be granted, the flight must return 10 minutes prior to the scheduled due back time. If an  aircraft is not back on time, the Piston Aviation Management Representative will initiate search procedures. 

Failure to arrive by the scheduled block time that is not because of air traffic,  weather, or maintenance delays will result in a loss of rental privileges.

5.5 Practice Areas  

While in the practice areas all instructors and students must monitor Piston Aviation operations frequency on 123.45 if aircraft is equipped with 2nd radio Comm.  If not equipped with a second radio comm it is imperative that Students and Flight instructors stay on local Unicom frequencies as scheduled for Flight Plan. 

1H0 Practice Areas The Practice areas Piston Aviation generally uses for most training maneuvers is shown on the sectional map below as the areas outlined in Black.  

Piston Aviation from 1H0 Practice Areas

5.6 Pre/Post Flight Briefing 

Prior to each flight, the student will be briefed by their CFI and FRAT sheet via Sky List Pro will be completed.  If the FRAT sheet indicates a No-Go for the day the Student and CFI will discuss the factors.  Briefings will include descriptions, objectives, procedures, and standards for the maneuvers to be  performed. After the flight, the CFI will solicit a self analysis from the student by asking  them, “What went well? Why?” and “What did not go well? Why?” Next, the CFI will  critique the student’s performance, noting both strong and weak points. This dual evaluation erases misconceptions, and encourages ongoing self-assessment and evaluation with respect to comprehension of concepts and  flight performance. Anything that is unclear to the student should be explained by the  CFI at this time. The student should not leave a pre or post flight briefing until they are confident that all questions have been answered. 

5.7 Night Solo Operations 

Solo night flying operations will be scheduled and supervised by a CFI or flight  supervisor. All pilots conducting night operations are required to have in their possession  at least two flashlights or other light source adequate to conduct a preflight inspection and  to view the instrument panel in flight if an electrical failure occurs. Particular care should  be taken at night when conducting the preflight inspection since discrepancies are more  difficult to see at night. It is imperative that all required lights are operating correctly.  Student pilots holding a Student Pilot Certificate will not fly solo at night. They may not  depart on a solo flight in the morning prior to official sunrise. Student pilots must be on  the ground no later than official sunset. If on a cross-country flight, they must return and  be on the ground at their home base one hour before sunset. Flight students who hold a  Private Pilot Certificate are authorized to fly at night for the purpose of completing those  lessons/units that must be flown at night. If on a day VFR solo cross-country flight, they  must be back on the ground at their departure airport at or before 30 minutes after official  sunset. 

A non-private pilot flight student may not be dispatched on a solo night flight  unless the student has received a night briefing from their flight CFI.

Although the responsibility for educating flight students in night flying  procedures, precautions, and preparations lies with the student’s flight CFI, there will be a night flying briefing for all students scheduled at least once every 12 months. This  briefing will cover preparation and procedural items of importance to night flying  activities.

5.8 Noise Abatement 

All Piston Aviation' pilots will cooperate to the fullest with Airport management to assist in  the reduction of noise in the vicinity of Creve Coeur Airport (1H0).  All Piston Aviation' pilots will adhere to the local noise abatement  procedures as published by the airport manager/FAA. 

5.9 Taxi/Landing Light Operation 

In an effort to reduce maintenance costs and aircraft down time, aircraft taxi/landing lights will be activated while operating within the vicinity of an airport,  during times of reduced visibility or when maneuvering in the practice area. 

5.10 Arrival and Departure Procedures 

All arrival and departure procedures at Creve Coeur Airport (1H0) will be in  compliance with AIM procedures for uncontrolled airports. Traffic pattern altitude will  be flown at 1112 ft. MSL. 

Note: Due to the class Bravo Airspace of St. Louis Lambert International Airspace that Runway 16 has a Right Traffic Pattern.

Chapter 6- Emergency Operations 

6.1 General 

REMEMBER: AVIATE – NAVIGATE - COMMUNICATE 

 There is always an initial sense of panic when something unexpected occurs that  may affect the safety of the flight. This feeling must be overcome because any type of  emergency is best handled by remaining calm and methodically working to find a  solution to the problem.  

In order to learn to overcome this feeling, customers will be drilled repeatedly on  emergency procedures. The purpose is to ingrain these procedures in the customers so  well that their reactions to an emergency are automatic and are completed without doubt  as to how to appropriately respond to the emergency. 

Some emergencies are more immediate than others. Depending on the type of  emergency and situation, some procedures must be committed to memory due to time  limitations, while others can be dealt with by the more preferable method of using a  checklist or by consulting the Pilot’s Operating Handbook or Aircraft Operating  Instructions.  

When an emergency occurs, the primary duty of a pilot is to fly the aircraft. Pilots should not become so distracted by the emergency that their attention is diverted  from the task of flying the aircraft. Many simple emergency situations have turned into  major accidents when the pilot became distracted and ceased to function as the pilot of  the aircraft. 

Listed below are three basic rules to remember that will aid immeasurable for a  safe emergency situation resolution:  

  1. MAINTAIN AIRCRAFT CONTROL 
  2. ANALYZE THE SITUATION & TAKE CORRECTIVE ACTION 
  3. LAND AS SOON AS CONDITIONS PERMIT

6.2 Deteriorating Weather 

To the VFR pilot, a reduction in visibility and/or ceiling can be an emergency  situation. Marginal VFR and IFR conditions can occur suddenly.  To best  avoid an encounter with IFR conditions, pilots must remain alert to changing conditions  and be ready to take timely action to avoid being caught in rapidly deteriorating weather.  All pilots should have an alternative course of action in mind and should be ready to  execute that course of action when conditions start to deteriorate. 

If the flight is operating in the local practice area, the pilot should monitor Spirt of St. Louis (KSUS) ATIS 134.8 or St. Louis Lambert International (KSTL) ATIS 125.05 for weather information. If deteriorating weather is encountered while in the  practice area or if the airport goes IFR before the flight can return to the airport, the pilot should notify ATC St. Louis Approach on 132.125 and request guidance. Several airports are located within  the practice area, and it is usually possible to go to one of them and wait for the situation  to clear up. In any event, remain calm, closely monitor the remaining fuel supply, keep  track of aircraft position, and always remain in control of the situation. 

6.3 Lost Communications Procedures 

It is virtually impossible to provide procedures applicable to all possible situations  associated with two-way radio communications failure. During two-way radio  communications failure, when confronted by a situation not covered in the regulation,  pilots are expected to exercise good judgment in whatever action they decide to take. 

Creve Coeur Airport (1H0) is an unrestricted airfield so Radio communications is not required to land or enter the pattern, however, the pilot should follow all pattern rules and be extra cautious of the other planes in the landing pattern, they cannot hear you!

If for some reason you have to land at Spirit of St. Louis (KSUS) and a communications malfunction is confirmed, the following no radio procedure  should be used to safely enter an airport located in Class D airspace: 

  1. Squawk 7600 
  2. Fly over the airport above Class D airspace to determine active runway/winds. Maneuver for a 90 degree entry to the active runway at 500 feet above traffic pattern  altitude and fly toward the control tower. Use extreme caution for traffic at all altitudes.  Flash your landing light and vigorously rock your wings. After crossing overhead the  tower, maneuver for a two mile 45 degree Downwind entry to the active runway, and  descent to pattern altitude. Transmit position and intentions in the blind. Sequence into  pattern using extreme caution as other aircraft may not be aware of your position. Watch  tower for light gun signals. Acknowledge signals by rocking your wings, flashing the nav lights at night, or by flashing the landing light if pointed at the tower. Descend for 

landing when the proper light signal has been received. If no signals are received, remain at pattern altitude and remain in the pattern. 

6.4 Lost Procedures 

A current Kansas City Sectional Chart is a mandatory item for all flights. 

Lost aircraft on a local flight or cross-country flight should attempt to determine  their location using the following procedures: 

  1. Maintain positive aircraft control at all times. 
  2. Use geographical features and/or navigational aids to determine position. a. Topographical features: 
  3. Reset the heading indicator. 
  4. Turn the sectional chart to match the airplane heading. 

          iii. Watch for prominent landmarks. 

  1. Match the landmarks to the sectional chart. 
  2. Monitor time and fuel quantity. 
  3. Navaids: 
  4. Reset the heading indicator. 
  5. Tune and identify available VOR/NDB stations. 

iii. Locate airplane position using radials bearings/DME. 

  1. Plot a course to proceed direct to the destination or to intercept the  planned course as appropriate. 
  2. Utilize the GPS to locate present position, or use the direct 

function to take you to a known location. 

In the event the above procedure fails to determine airplane position, contact the  nearest ATC facility or FSS for radar assistance. Remember the 5 C’s- Confess, Climb,  Communicate, Comply, Conserve. 

NOTE: CONSIDERATION SHOULD BE GIVEN TO EXECUTING AN OFF  AIRPORT PRECAUTIONARY LANDING.  

DISTANCE OFF COURSE, FUEL REMAINING, AND WEATHER  CONDITIONS.

6.5 Forced Landing  

In the event that a forced landing becomes necessary, it is very likely that the  landing will take place in a relatively remote area. Unless the exact position of the  aircraft is known along with the direction and distance to the nearest aid of assistance, it  is best to stay with the aircraft. Staying with the aircraft will afford shelter and a larger  target for search and rescue personnel to observe from the air. 

Each aircraft is equipped with an emergency First Aid Kit which can be utilized in  the event of a forced landing. All pilots should be familiar with the contents of the First  Aid Kit. Pilots should ensure that the ELT located behind the tail compartment is turned  on and transmitting.  

6.6 Fire  

 1. Ground - The majority of fires that do occur on a ramp stem from  improper priming procedures in cold weather which results in a carburetor  fire. Utilize the proper priming procedures set forth in the aircraft POH to  determine the safest and most effective method to use when starting the  engine. In the event of a carburetor fire while starting, follow the  

recommended procedure listed in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook and the  aircraft checklist. Most carburetor fires can be “sucked” into the engine if  the pilot remains calm, continues to crank the engine and shuts off the  fire’s source of fuel. If the fire does not go out, evacuate the aircraft and  report the fire. If a fire extinguisher is available and the fire is still small,  accessible and manageable, try to extinguish the fire with the fire  

extinguisher, but always avoid any possibility of personal injury. If an  attempt is going to be made to extinguish the fire, adhere to the following  guidelines:  

  1. Use extreme caution around propellers. 
  2. Use extreme caution near fuel system fires. 
  3. Keep the wind at your back.  
  4. Beware of toxic fumes (burning plastic).  
  5. Always fight a fire at the base while using a crouched body position.  f. Use Halon or Carbon Dioxide extinguisher on engine fires if possible  rather than dry chemical. 
  6. Never use water on an electrical fire. It is very important that the  proper fire extinguisher agent is used for the appropriate type of class  of fire. 
  7. If a fire extinguisher is used the aircraft is grounded until released by  maintenance.
  8. Airborne - An engine fire, when airborne due to the intense heat could  cause structural failure among other things. If an engine fire should occur  while airborne, secure the engine, and utilize the appropriate fire checklist  for the aircraft and make an emergency descent to land as soon as  

possible. Don’t attempt to restart an engine that has been shut down due  to fire. If the fire is electrical, the situation is not as critical. Shut the  master switch off and follow the appropriate checklist to isolate the  defective device. Land as soon as practical.  

6.7 Unsafe Landing Gear Indications  

Many unsafe landing gear indications are traced to minor problems in the  indicating system and not actual gear malfunctions. However, any malfunction of the  gear indicating system should be treated as if the gear were not down and locked, and the  appropriate emergency procedure from the Pilot’s Operating Handbook should be  followed.  

If a gear malfunction should occur in the local area and the problem cannot be  resolved through the use of the procedures in the Pilot’s Operating Handbook, the pilot  should contact ATC on St. Louis approach Frequency 132.125 before attempting a landing.  

If the gear deployment malfunction occurs in the traffic pattern and cannot be  resolved quickly, it is suggested that the pilot (with a clearance from the tower if the field  is controlled) climb to an altitude above the airport where the aircraft is out of the way of  other aircraft, and then work on resolving the gear malfunction problem.  

If the malfunction can still not be resolved and a down and locked indication  cannot be achieved, the pilot may request to do a low pass at a slow airspeed so that  observers on the ground or in the tower (if controlled) can visually check the position of  the landing gear. On unicom frequency 122.8 make call saying Gear Malfunction and request assistance to anyone listening.

When the decision is made to land without a gear down and locked indication,  call for emergency crash and rescue equipment to be available, then touchdown softly  and let the aircraft roll out with minimum use of brakes. Consideration should be given  to utilize a standard soft field landing technique. Any turns should be avoided. After  rolling out on the runway, leave the aircraft on the runway, shut down the engine and  inform the appropriate authority of the situation. Piston Aviation' maintenance personnel and if necessary lock the landing gear in the down position. If the landing gear malfunction takes place during takeoff and the landing gear fails to retract when the gear  handle is put n the “Up” position, the pilot after verifying that the gear will not retract,  should return the gear handle to the “Down” position, confirm that the gear is down and  locked, the “in transit” light off (if applicable), and then return to the airport and make a  precautionary landing. 

The pilot should bear in mind the increase in the risk factor on multi-engine aircraft that results when the gear on a multi-engine aircraft cannot be retracted for  whatever reason. Should an engine malfunction occur when the gear is down and unable  to be retracted, single engine performance will more than likely be reduced to the pilot  where altitude cannot be maintained and a landing must be made. 

6.8 Accident or Incident Notification Procedure 

In the event of an accident, incident, forced landing, precautionary landing, or  damage to an aircraft, the pilot-in-command will notify Piston Aviation Management as soon  as possible. The following information will be relayed to Maintenance: a. Date 

  1. Time 
  2. Location of mishap 
  3. Aircraft type 
  4. Aircraft N-number 
  5. Number and type of injuries to personnel 
  6. Presence of fire 
  7. Description of mishap and damage to aircraft 
  8. Damage to property 
  9. Name of person reporting the mishap 

If an Piston Aviation' aircraft is involved in an aircraft incident or accident, the pilot-in command should not admit blame or fault to anyone other than Piston Aviation' officials. No  statements or comments should be made to any member of press.  Persons involved in any aircraft accident/incident will: 

  1. Fill out a preliminary report of the aircraft mishap on a Flight Operations Incident Report Form. 
  2. In the case of an aircraft accident or incident: 
  3. Be examined by a physician if any possibility of personal injury is suspected. 
  4. Make themselves available for questioning by Piston Aviation officials, the FAA,  and the NTSB. 
  5. Submit to a drug test and Blood Alcohol level screening..

Chapter 7-Communications 

7.1 General  

Effective and efficient communications are essential for safe aircraft operations.  A pilot must communicate for the purpose of air traffic control, obtaining airport and  runway information, obtaining aircraft services and acquiring general information  necessary to make operational decisions. One of the most misunderstood essentials of  communications is the art of listening. Listen before talking. Much can be learned by  listening rather than talking. When you have to talk, say what you have to in the fewest  words necessary to get your message across. All radio communications will be  conducted in accordance with Chapter 4, Section 2 of the Aeronautical Information  Manual (AIM).  

7.2 Pilot Headsets  

The cockpit of an aircraft is a very difficult place for two people to communicate  due to engine and airflow noise. For this reason, all of the Piston Aviation aircraft are equipped  with intercom systems for headset usage by customer, CFI and observer. This greatly  increases the effectiveness of the training environment. It is required that all customers use headsets during their flight. The use of headsets not only improves the quality of  instruction, but also reduces fatigue and the dangerous physical effects of noise on a  pilot’s hearing ability.  

All customers  are responsible for obtaining and owning their own headset for lessons. 

Chapter 8- Restrictions and Limitations 

8.1 General  

The Piston Aviation pilot is expected to abide not only by the FAA’s rules and regulations,  but also the Piston Aviation’ policies as set forth in this manual and other Piston Aviation’ publications.  The underlying purpose for all policies, restrictions, and limitations is for safety. Any pilot who commits an infraction of the rules and regulations will be disciplined, and  may, if the information is serious enough, be removed from the flight training program. 

It is the responsibility of each customer, CFI, and staff member to know the  contents of this manual and to abide by the rules and regulations contained herein. Not  knowing that a rule or restriction exists is not an excuse for failing to follow the  directives set forth in this manual. 

8.2 Dress Code  

 All customers and visitor/guest observers engaged in the activities involving the  flying or observing in Piston Aviation aircraft, will, as a minimum, wear the following: 

  • Shoes/sneakers and socks which fully cover the feet; 
  • Pants or hemmed shorts;  
  • Sleeved shirts made of conventional fabric which fully covers the torso. 
  • Unusually thin or open weave fabric is not acceptable.
  • CFI’s are required to wear a Piston Aviation Shirt provided to them by Piston Aviation during training sessions
  • CFI’s and Students are expected to be mindful of tight cockpit environments which necessitates attention being paid to breath and body odor. 

8.3 Alcohol and Drug Restrictions 

No person may act or attempt to act as a crew member of Piston Aviation' aircraft under the  following conditions:  

  • Within 12 hours after the consumption of any alcoholic beverage.
  • While still under the influence of alcohol in any way.  
  • While using any medicine or drug that affects the faculties in any way contrary to  safety.  
  • After having received a DWI/DUI for driving an automobile while under the  influence of alcohol and has not reported this fact Piston Aviation Management  
  • Any association with or any use of any narcotic drug, marijuana, depressant or  stimulant drugs, or any illegal substance as defined in Federal or State statutes is  strictly forbidden and will result in the immediate suspension and dismissal from  the flight training program.
  • No Piston Aviation pilot will carry or allow to be carried aboard his/her aircraft any narcotic drug, marijuana, depressant or stimulant drugs, or illegal substance as defined in  Federal or State statutes.  

Any Piston Aviation pilot found operating an aircraft or attempting to operate an aircraft in  violation of the above will be dismissed from the flight training program and will be  subject to dismissal from Piston Aviation with possible further action being taken by the FAA for  violation of 14 CFR’s 91.17 and 91.19. 

8.4 Carriage of Fire Arms 

Carrying or transporting any firearm or ammunition aboard Piston Aviation aircraft at any  time or for any reason is prohibited. The possession or carrying of deadly weapons is prohibited on the premises of any Piston Aviation Facility. 

8.5 General Flight Rules 

The following restrictions apply to all flights as appropriate: 

  1. Local flight is restricted to the practice area for all training and practice. Any  flight operating outside of the local practice area except those dual flights  specifically dispatched to one of the outlying airports (see section 8.8) is  considered to be on a cross-country flight and must be on an FAA plan (A  copy of the flight plan or cross-country authorizations must be given to  Dispatch). 
  2. Flight training maneuvers (i.e. stalls, slow flight, etc.) will not be conducted  within a 2 NM Radius of the departure airport. 
  3. NO Stalls or Emergency Procedures are permitted to be performed  without an approved Piston Aviation CFI on board. 
  4. Aircraft are not to be flown in formation unless specifically authorized by the  Chief Flight Instructor. Formation flying is defined to mean any aircraft  operating within 2000 feet horizontally or 500 feet vertically of another  aircraft (except when in traffic pattern) or two or more Piston Aviation aircraft  knowingly flying together in the same general direction at the same general  altitude with the purpose of keeping visual reference and position on the other  aircraft.
  5. Any student pilot going solo to another airport in the practice area must be  signed off for that airport by his/her CFI, and must also be signed off for a  cross-country flight in accordance with 14 CFR 61.93 (d) if the airport is  beyond 25 nautical miles from their departure airport. 
  6. No aircraft will be operated in a careless or reckless manner. 
  7. Minimum altitudes above the ground are set forth in 14 CFR 91.119 and will  be fully complied with. 
  8. Clearing turns will be made before each individual maneuver is conducted. 
  9. Spins will be conducted only in aircraft specifically approved for spins, and  will be conducted only on dual flights in courses leading to flight instructor  certification. Flight that will do spins must be loaded so that the aircraft CG is  in and remains in the utility category for the duration of the flight. A copy of  the current computed weight and balance will be left with dispatch before  departing on the flight. Observers will not be carried on flights when spins  are to be conducted.  
  10. Unusual flight attitudes, such as a start of power-on spiral or an approach to a  climbing stall, shall not exceed 60 degrees of bank or 15 degrees pitch from  level flight. Unusual attitudes when accomplished at night will be limited to  areas where sufficient lighting is available to provide the CFI with sufficient  visual reference to safely conduct the maneuver. Unusual attitudes will not be  accomplished without a visible horizon outside the aircraft. 
  11. With the exception of spin training. (in an appropriately rated aircraft),  required for Flight Instructor Certification, acrobatic maneuvers (bank in  excess of 60 degrees relative to the horizon and/or pitch attitudes in excess of  30 degrees from level flight) ARE PROHIBITED IN Piston Aviation AIRCRAFT. 
  12. Simulated forced landings will recover at least 500 feet AGL unless the  aircraft is in a position to land at an approved airport and will not interfere  with other traffic at the airport. 
  13. Except in the event of an emergency, all landings will be made on a hard surfaced runway. 
  14. Aircraft checklist will be used by all pilots during all phases of flight to include pre and post flight inspections.
  15. Flight into known or forecast icing conditions is prohibited. 
  16. Piston Aviation’ aircraft will not taxi for the purpose of flight with frost, ice, or snow  adhering to any lifting surface of the aircraft. In addition, no Piston Aviation' aircraft  will start or taxi anytime frost, ice, or snow is adhering to the windscreen. 
  17. Flap Retraction in accordance with sound training procedures, and to establish  consistent habit patterns, will be followed during all ground operations. For  the purpose of dual activities, the flying pilot will identify the flap handle and  call out “flaps identified.” The non-flying pilot will verify that the flap handle  has been selected and respond with “flaps verified.” Following this  confirmation, the flying pilot will retract the flaps. For the purpose of the  solo/PIC activities, the pilot will visually verify the flap handle prior to flap  retraction.  
  18. Flight into active military operating areas is prohibited.  
  19. No practice aborted takeoffs to a touchdown after rotation. 
  20. Engine failures in single-engine aircraft will be simulated by retarding the  throttle only. Engine failures will not be simulated below 500 feet AGL in  any Piston Aviation' aircraft. 
  21. Instrument approaches may not be initiated to airports knowingly below  applicable approach minimums. 
  22. Piston Aviation Aircraft may not attempt to land on any runway which is shorter than  3,000 feet (4,000 feet if OAT is 29 degrees Celsius or higher). Unless a short  field checkout is obtained.

8.6 Aircraft Check Out Procedures 

All renters of Piston Aviation aircraft must complete an Annual Flight Review, Limitations  Exam, and Renter Check Out flight for each aircraft they wish to rent and must have a  current BFR. 

Check Out Flights will be completed under the guidelines as outlined in Appendix  B. 

8.7 Weather Restrictions  

See Section 5.2  

8.8 Touch and Go Restrictions 

Touch-and-go operations are prohibited by Student Pilot’s at all times. Dual  flights and Rental flights are permitted to do Stop-and-go’s where adequate runway is  available after landing to safely perform the maneuver and clear any obstacle by 50’.  

In addition, no intersections takeoffs are permitted in any Piston Aviation aircraft when  there is less than 4,000 feet remaining of available runway.  

8.9 Airport Restrictions  

All flight operations are restricted to airports specified in this manual or as  authorized by a Piston Aviation Flight Instructor. Any airport flown into that has no fuel or  services available, the customer will be charged an additional, nonrefundable, fee of  $35.  

The additional fees collected go toward the cost of sending a mechanic to the airport in  the case maintenance needs to be provided by Piston Aviation. 

 Non-Towered 

All operations at non-towered airports will be conducted in accordance with the  applicable sections of Chapter 4 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM),  specifically, but not limited to sections 4-3-3 and 4-3-4 pertaining to traffic  pattern operations. 

Aircraft will announce their position and intentions when operating at an  uncontrolled airport in accordance with section 4-1-9 of the Aeronautical  Information Manual (AIM). 

When a pilot change is to be made at an uncontrolled field, that changes will be  made on the airport ramp clear of the runway and taxiways where the aircraft will  not interfere with the arrival or departure of other aircraft. 

Communications at airports with closed control towers will be made on the  Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) which is normally the published  control tower frequency. 

Towered 

All operations at towered airports will be conducted in accordance with the  applicable sections of Chapter 4 of the Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM),  specifically, but not limited to, sections 4-3-2 and 4-3-4 pertaining to traffic  pattern operations, unless specifically directed to do otherwise by the control  tower. 

Aircraft intending to remain in the traffic pattern shall advise the tower prior to  departure or prior to pattern entry for arriving aircraft. 

If remaining in the traffic pattern, commence the crosswind turn 300 feet below  traffic pattern altitude. 

If departing the traffic pattern climb to traffic pattern altitude before making any  turns unless specifically directed to do otherwise by the control tower. 

After landing, clear the runway as expeditiously as possible. Do not make 180  degree turns on the runway unless specifically directed to do so by the control  tower.

All Airports a student pilot intends to fly to whether during a solo flight or solo cross country flight, must have a reviewed flight plan by a Piston Aviation CFI and have been log book approved. 

Any airport destination, for a student pilot or renter, further than 50 NM must be disclosed to Piston Aviation Management, have flight plan approved by Piston Aviation Management if student pilot and Flight Plan filed with the FAA if a renter.

8.10 Solo Restrictions 

The following restrictions apply to solo flights: 

  • Student must have flown with a CFI within the past 30 days in order to solo. 
  • Carrying of passengers on solo training flights is prohibited. 
  • For pre private pilot students a CFI must be present on the field at the time of  Solo. 
  • All local solo flights must remain within the practice area. Student pilots must  remain in the local practice area and within 25 nm of base. 
  • Solo stalls/spins of any type are prohibited. 
  • Solo students may not perform Emergency operations or Stalls. 
  • Solo night flights by pre private pilot students are not authorized. All solo cross-country operations must be approved by the student’s CFI and the  Student must purchase fuel at each point of landing. 
  • All pre private pilot solo flights must return to Piston Aviation based airport on the same  day. 
  • Flights outside the local practice area will be on an FAA flight plan. Students dispatched for any solo operations must meet the recency of experience  requirements as prescribed by 14 CFR 61.57 or 14 CFR 61.87. 

8.11 Solo and/or Night Flying Restrictions  

The following restrictions apply to solo/PIC night flying: 

  • Only those solo/PIC flights designated to be flown at night in the Training Course  Outline will be flown at night.  
  • Student Pilots dispatched on solo cross-country flights must return to Piston Aviation based  airport and be on the ground at Piston Aviation based airport at or before one hour prior to  official sunset. If the flight cannot make it back to Piston Aviation Based Airport prior to  one hour before sunset, the flight will remain on the ground where it is and remain  there overnight. 
  • Student Pilots and Private Pilots dispatched solo to the local practice area  conducting daytime training activities must be on the ground at Piston Aviation Based  airport no later than official sunset.

8.12 Flight/Duty Time Restrictions 

Flight Students: 

No more than three flight activities within a 24 hour period. Adequate rest before  scheduled flight activities, a minimum of six hours is suggested. 

8.13 Care of Aircraft

All students and Renters are responsible for the care of the aircraft while in their possession.  Piston Aviation takes pride in the condition of the Aircraft it provides to students and renters, and expects the students and renters to take pride in the condition of the aircraft they get to fly.  The following basic guidelines are expected of All students and renters while using a Piston Aviation Aircraft.

  1. No food or drink allowed in the aircraft, except for bottled water
  2. Ground Leaning of Aircraft should be standard practice during ground operations
  3. Students and Renters are required to wipe down cowling and all leading edges of wings and propellers after each flight using cleaning chemicals provided by Piston Aviation. Micro Fiber clothes should be used for this and thrown away after use.

Chapter 9 - Payment and Refund Policies

9.1 Payment Policy

Full payment for used Flight hours and Instructor time is always due the day of the flight, via approved payment method.

9.2 Approved Payment Methods

Approved Payment Methods include:

  • Major Credit or Debit Card (VISA, MasterCard, American Express)
  • CASH
  • Cashiers Check
  • Money Order
  • eCheck - ACH

No Personal checks are accepted as a method of payment.

9.3 Grounding for Non-Payment

If a student or renter fails to pay or has payment declined for any reason, he or she will be grounded until their account is paid in full.  There will be a $50 Non-Sufficient fund fee assessed for any transaction that is returned to Piston Aviation for any reason.

9.4 Prepaid Flight Hours

Piston Aviation offers and encourages Students and Renters to Pre-pay their flight time.  Customers must have positive Flight Hour Balance of at least 2 hours on their account to be able to schedule Flights. Flight and Instructor Hours may be purchased in person at 14201 Creve Coeur Airport Rd, Hangar K2 St. Louis MO 63146 via approved payment method or online using the Flight Scheduling webpage or app.  All hours sold on a prepaid basis are good with Piston Aviation for 12 months at the rate they are sold at.  After 12 months, and every 30 days thereafter, Piston Aviation reserves the right to adjust the plane and instructor hour balances of a customer's account based on its currently published rates on https://flypiston.com.

9.5 Refund Policy for Prepaid Hours

All Flight and Instructor Hours are completely non-refundable once used.  All Sales are final for Flight Hours, Instructor Hours and Merchandise on the day of the flight and sales transaction on merchandise.

9.5.1 "Pay as you Go" Flight and Instructor Hour Refund Policy

After November 5th, 2023 all Flight Hour/Aircraft Rental Hour Purchases up to 9.9 Hours are considered "Pay as you Go" regardless of purchase price.  All "Pay as you Go" Flight Hour/Aircraft Rental Hour Purchases are completely Non-Refundable.

After November 5th, 2023, Instructor Hours Purchased outside of a Training Package are considered "Pay as you Go" Instructor Hours.  "Pay as you Go" Instructor Hours are completely non-refundable

Flight hours and Instructor hours are transferable to another student, upon approval from Piston Aviation Management

Flight Hours and Instructor Hours purchased prior to November 5th, 2023 will be refunded with the follow conditions

  1. Unused Hours are refunded at the rate they were purchased minus a 3.5% credit card fee if purchased with a credit card, and no credit card fee was paid to Piston Aviation.  
  2. If an online credit company such as but limited to Affirm or Klarna was used to make payment.  Their fee to Piston Aviation will be deducted from the refund amount
  3. Piston Aviation has a Progressive “Use it or lose it Refund Policy”, as we want our customers to use their flight hours and become pilots.  As long as a Student/Pilot has flown at least 3 hours within the past 60 Days, unused flight and instructor hours are fully refundable up to 90 days from original purchase date.  If Pilot has not flown at least 3 hours in the last 60 day  period for 90 days since purchase, for any reason, unused hours are refundable at a rate of 50%.  After a 90 day period since purchase unused hours become completely non-refundable regardless of usage.  However hours will still remain in Students account indefinitely for use but may be subject to the conditions of section 9.4 above.  Also Flight hours are transferable to another student, upon approval from Piston Aviation Management.
  4. Piston Aviation will refund the refundable portion of hours within sixty days from the date of refund request via Business Check or Refund to Credit Card used to purchase hours if applicable.

9.5.2 Block Hour Refund Policy

All Flight Hour/Aircraft Rental Hour Purchases 10 Hours or more are considered "Block Hour" purchases .

All unused Block Hour Purchases are refundable with the following conditions

    1. Subject to item 3 below, Unused Hours are refunded at the rate they were purchased minus a 3.5% credit card fee if purchased with a credit card, and no credit card fee was paid to Piston Aviation.  
    2. If an online credit company such as but limited to Affirm or Klarna was used to make payment.  Their fee to Piston Aviation will be deducted from the refund amount
    3. If less than 10 hours of the purchased block hours have been used, Used hours at the baseline rate will be subtracted from the total amount spent, prior to additional refund calculations.
    4. Piston Aviation has a Progressive “Use it or lose it Refund Policy”, as we want our customers to use their flight hours and become pilots.  As long as a Student/Pilot has flown at least 3 hours within the past 60 Days, unused flight and instructor hours are fully refundable up to 90 days from original purchase date.  If Pilot has not flown at least 3 hours in the last 60 day  period for 90 days since purchase, for any reason, unused hours are refundable at a rate of 50%.  After a 90 day period since purchase unused hours become 50% refundable regardless of usage. After 180 days since purchase date all hours become completely non-refundable regardless of usage.  However, hours will still remain in Students account indefinitely for use but may be subject to the conditions of section 9.4 above.  Also Flight hours are transferable to another student, upon approval from Piston Aviation Management.
    5. Piston Aviation will refund the refundable portion of hours within sixty days from the date of refund request via Business Check or Refund to Credit Card used to purchase hours if applicable. Block Hours purchased (Instructor and Airplane Hours)

9.5.3 Training Package Refund Policy

Piston Aviation Sells Sport Pilot, Private Pilot, IFR, Custom IFR, Commercial, and CFI training packages.  The packages include a defined number of Flight/Aircraft Rental Hours, and Instructor Hours, as well as Course Material and Pilot Supplies.  

These Packages are refundable with the following conditions:

  1. $1000 of any training package is non refundable for the cost of student onboarding, course materials, online ground school and supplies (such as headset and flight bag provided) and Piston Aviation LLC Profit Guarantee. This non refundable portion is subtracted from the original purchase price prior to any other refund calculation.
  2. If package was purchased with a credit or debit card, and no credit card fee was paid to Piston Aviation, there will be a 3.5% refund processing fee assessed
  3. If an online credit company such as but limited to Affirm or Klarna was used to make payment.  Their fee to Piston Aviation will be deducted from the refund amount
  4. Piston Aviation has a Progressive “Use it or lose it Refund Policy”, as we want our customers to use their flight hours and become pilots.  As long as a Student/Pilot has flown at least 3 hours within the past 60 day period, unused flight and instructor hours are fully refundable up to 120 days from date of Purchase.  If Pilot has not flown at least 3 hours in the last 60 day period for the first 120 days since purchase, for any reason, unused hours are refundable at a rate of 50%.  After 120 days since purchase unused hours become 50% refundable regardless of usage, and after 180 days after purchase hours are completely non-refundable.  However hours will still remain in Students account indefinitely for use but may be subject to the conditions of section 9.4 above.  Also Flight hours are transferable to another student, upon approval from Piston Aviation Management.
  5. Packages are sold at a discount off of normal flight and instructor rates.  The discounts are applied to the final hours of the training package.  Refunds will be calculated by applying used airplane time and instructor hours at the baseline hourly rate at the time of Refund Request, and refunding the balance of the purchase price.
  6. Accelerated Training Program Packages are subject to the policy outlined in 9.7 Below
  7. Piston Aviation will refund the refundable portion of the training package within sixty days from the date of refund request via Business Check or Refund to Credit Card used to purchase the package if applicable.

9.5.4 Example Refund calculations

Example Refund calculation #1: A discounted Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using a Mastercard for $9,999.  The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of package purchase was $189/hr and $89/hr respectively. The student decided after 11 hours of flight training and 15 hours of instructor time in the first 90 days since purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund. The refund would be calculated as follows.

$9,999 - 3% credit card fee - $1000 supply fee - 11 hrs x $189 - 15 hrs x $89

= $9,999 - ($9,999 x0.03) - $1000 - ($189 x 11) - ($89 x 15)

= $9,999 - $299.97 - $1000 - $2079 - $1335

= $3,585.03

In this situation $3,585.03 will be due to the student pilot as a refund, and will be payable via company check from Piston Aviation to the student, or refund to credit card used to Purchase.

Example Refund calculation #2: A Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using a Mastercard for $13,500.  The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of refund request was $189/hr and $89/hr respectively. The student decided after 2 hours of flight training and 3 hours of instructor time 65 says after purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund.  The refund would be calculated as follows.

($13,500 - 3% credit card fee - $1000 supply fee - 2 hrs x $189 - 3 hrs x $89)*50%

=($13,500 - ($13,500 x0.03) - $1000 - ($189 x 2) - ($89 x 3))x0.50

= ($13,500 - $405 - $1000 - $378 - $267)x0.50

= $5,725.00

In this situation $5,725.00will be due to the student pilot as a refund, and will be payable via company check from Piston Aviation to the student, or refund to credit card used to Purchase.

Example Refund calculation #3: A Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using CASH for $13,500.  The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of refund request was $170/hr and $85/hr respectively. The student decided after 13 hours of flight training and 18 hours of instructor time 150 days since purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund.  The refund would be calculated as follows.

($13,500 -  $1000 supply fee - 13 hrs x $170 - 18 hrs x $85)*50%

=($13,500 - $1000 - ($170 x 13) - ($85 x 18)x0.50

= ($13,500 - $1000 - $2210 - $1530)x0.50

= $4,380

In this situation $4,380 will be due to the student pilot as a refund, and will be payable via company check from Piston Aviation to the student, or refund to credit card used to Purchase.

Example Refund calculation #4: A Full Private Pilot training package, which included 55 airplane hours and 45 Instructor hours, was purchased using CASH for $13,500.  The airplane rental rate and instructor rate at time of refund request was $165/hr and $85/hr respectively. The student decided after 25 hours of flight training and 30 hours of instructor time in 200 days since purchase, that they did not want to pursue training further and requested a refund.  The refund would be calculated as follows.

No Refund (after 180 days)

In this situation No Refund will be due to the student pilot as a refund, but the student can choose to transfer his or her remaining hours to another student.

9.6 Refund Policy for Student Loan Financing through Meritze - Zero to Hero Program

The Zero to Hero Program is built on a 250 Flight Log Book Loggable Hour Program.  These hours include Hours in Aircraft during training flights with an instructor, solo flights and PIC time while "team flying", along with Simulator time.  Aircraft rental hours will be deducted from Students account balance based on what they log in their logbook.  Student's logbooks are subject to review by Piston Aviation Management, to confirm account balances. The First $2000 of each disbursement from Meritize is non refundable for course materials and onboarding. Refunds will be calculated  by dividing the total Program Cost ($75,000 as of August 24th 2023) by 250 Flight Hours, and multiplying the that calculation by the number of total hours flown with Piston Aviation, then subtracting that amount from the Funds already distributed to Piston Aviation LLC from Meritize.  Per Piston Aviation's Progressive Use it or Lose it refund policy, All unused funds will be reduced in refund value by 8.3% every 30 days the student is enrolled in the program.  After 12 months of enrollment with Piston Aviation, all funds received by Meritize are fully non-refundable.

This Section also applies to students who have opted for our zero to hero  program without using the financing option through Meritize. 

9.7 Refund Policy for Student Loan Financing through Meritze - IFR to Hero Program

The Zero to Hero Program is built on a 200 Flight Log Book Loggable Hour Program.  These hours include Hours in Aircraft during training flights with an instructor, solo flights and PIC time while "team flying", along with Simulator time.  Aircraft rental hours will be deducted from Students account balance based on what they log in their logbook. Student's logbooks are subject to review by Piston Aviation Management, to confirm account balances. The First $2000 of each disbursement from Meritize is non refundable for course materials and onboarding. Refunds will be calculated  by dividing the total Program Cost ($60,000 as of August 24th 2023) by 250 Flight Hours, and multiplying the that calculation by the number of total hours flown with Piston Aviation, then subtracting that amount from the Funds already distributed to Piston Aviation LLC from Meritize.  Per Piston Aviation's Progressive Use it or Lose it refund policy, All unused funds will be reduced in refund value by 10% every 30 days the student is enrolled in the program.  After 10 months of enrollment with Piston Aviation, all funds received by Meritize are fully non-refundable. 

This Section also applies to students who have opted for our IFR to hero  program without using the financing option through Meritize. 

9.8 Refund Policy for Accelerated Programs

All Funds minus a $1000 and 3.5% Credit card Fee (if Credit or Debit Card was used for purchase) are refundable if written notice (email is satisfactory) is provided of withdraw at least 10 days prior to assigned accelerated program start date.  Student may re-book to later accelerated program start date for a $500 re-booking fee.  After the start of student's assigned accelerated program dates, all funds become completely non-refundable.  There are no Minimum Hours Piston has to provide for the accelerated program however For the Private Pilot Accelerated Program Student shall not exceed 55 Aircraft Rental Hours and 55 Instructor Hours. Once student sits for license checkride, student hour account will be set to zero.  The cost of the First checkride is covered in the accelerated program, however, if additional checkrides are needed, aircraft hours, instructor hours, and cost of additional checkrides will be at student's expense.

9.9 Refund Policy for "Pay As you Fly" Customers

A minimum of 2 Hours of Flight Time for Solo Bookings and 2 Hours of Instructor Time for Dual Instruction Bookings must be in customer's account in order for them to book a flight appointment.  All Purchases are final once payment is made, no refunds will be issued.  If a flight is cancelled for any reason, customer may rebook another flight, using the hours previously purchased.

9.10 Rental Membership Policies

    1. Rental Memberships are sold on an annual basis
    2. Rental Memberships are non-transferrable
    3. Rental Memberships cannot be canceled for the 1st 12 months of membership
    4. After 1st 12 months of membership, a membership may be cancelled with 30 days written notice
    5. Flight Hours are subject to the program restrictions outlined in paragraph 9.8 Below
    6. Program Flight Hours are non-transferrable and must be used in the month they are issued, unless the program you signed up for states otherwise per paragraph 9.8 below.  Monthly Flight Hours cannot be banked and do not roll-over, unless otherwise noted in paragraph 9.8 below.
    7. Membership Fees are Non-Refundable.

9.11 Expenses Students/Renters are Responsible For

As of January 1st, 2024, none of the following expenses are covered any product Piston Aviation Sells.  Costs due to Piston Aviation will be paid by reducing students prepaid Flight and Instructor Hour balance on a dollar for dollar cost of expense based on the current Piston Baseline Rental Rate.  If Student/Renter's prepaid balance is not sufficient to cover the cost, student will be sent an invoice, and will be required to pay before being able to schedule future flights with Piston Aviation.

  1. Medical Exams to obtain a Class 1, Class 2, Class 3 or Basic Medical Certificate from the FAA
  2. FAA Written Exam Testing Center Fees
  3. Designated Pilot Examiner Fees
  4. Should a Student get sick during Flight and Vomit, that student is responsible for the cleaning expense of the aircraft to include but limited to, cleaning supplies required, Labor, or contracted detailing of aircraft.
  5. Should an aircraft be damaged due to student/renter negligence student is responsible for the repair cost of the aircraft.
  6. Aircraft abandonment.  Should student leave aircraft unattended at any airfield other than 1H0 for any reason, student is responsible for the cost to return aircraft to 1H0
  7. No-Show Fees.  If you do not show for a scheduled lesson (for any other reason then weather or maintenance cancellation) without first notifying Piston Aviation of your CFI, you will be charged a single ground hour on your first offense, then the time period of your schedule ground or flight block for subsequent no-shows.

9.12 Theft Policy

Theft of any kind will not be tolerated. If you are caught stealing items that belong to Piston Aviation LLC, or any of its affiliated companies, or any personal belongings of another individual student, CFI, piston aviation guest or visitors, you will be immediately be grounded, your full pre-paid account balance will be forfeited and you will not be welcome to fly at Piston Aviation permanently.  Prosecution to the fullest extent of the law, of the theft, will be at the discretion of Piston Aviation Management.

Chapter 10 Media Release

Media Release:

  1. Piston Aviation encourages use of social media to promote and/or advertise the school, planes, classes etc. 
  2. Piston Aviation has multiple social media platforms in use and by signing this contract the Signing Party hereby grants Piston Aviation permission to use their image in media publications including but not limited to videos/posts/publications/advertisements on all platforms including but not limited to Social Media, Websites owned and controlled by Piston aviation and its affiliates, Magazine Advertising, and public signage, now and in the future. Signing Party waives the right to royalties and/or other additional compensation that may arise from use of media. 
  3. Any ground school material used by Signing Party for student preparation is the property of Piston Aviation when prepaid at Piston Aviation.
  4. While on Piston Aviation Premises, or in or near Property owned, leased or contracted to Piston Aviation (such as aircraft), Signing Party consents to being photographed, and/or videoed with or without notice from Piston Aviation Management, staff, employees, contractors or other affiliates.  Such media may be used publicly for the promotion of Piston Aviation and its affiliated brands.

Chapter 11 COVID-19 Policy

Our primary concern at Piston Aviation is the health and welfare of all of our people including Staff, CFIs, Students and Customers.  For this reason a positive Covid-19 test result is ALWAYS a legitimate reason to cancel a flight.

11.1 Grounding due to Covid

If a CFI, Customer or Student tests positive for Covid-19 of any variant, they will be grounded until 3 days after a Negative Covid-19 test result.

If you are student, and we know this can cause some scheduling headaches if a CFI you rely on goes down, Piston Aviation will do our best to find you a substitute CFI and keep you flying, but thank you in advance for understanding if it does happen, as stated before the Health and Safety of everyone connected to Piston Aviation is our TOP Priority!

Signature:

 

I have read this Operations Policy and Manual, have asked all necessary questions to be comfortable signing and agree to adhere to all Policy and operational expectations herein.

 

Renter/Student/CFI

 

_________________________          Date:  

Name:  


Appendix A

The Personal Limitations checklist (PLC) was developed in order to help new pilots  increase their situational awareness by reading about other pilot incidents and  thereafter fly more safely. The PLC will help you to become a very safe pilot if you  and your CFI commit to developing your own customized set of limitations. Once  created, you must then make a pledge to continually update your PLC and adhere  to the limitations you and your CFI have set. The numbers in parenthesis are  suggested for the new pilot. Created by Louis Mancuso 1992  

Your limitations will increase & decrease depending on currency, total time and  experience. 

I PLEDGE TO: 

  1. Avoid collisions with other aircraft by: 
  • Keeping my head on a swivel in the traffic pattern, especially on final  approach. 
  • Maintaining a sterile cockpit when in the vicinity of an airport. 2. Have at least _________ (1 ½ ) hrs of fuel on board at the end of every flight. 
  1. Switch tanks immediately if the engine quits even if there is fuel remaining – there could be tank contamination or a blockage preventing proper fuel flow. 
  2. Apply carburetor heat immediately when the engine does not sound or feel right. 
  3. Never change my flap setting or initiate a slip or mush within 300 feet AGL,  unless it is an emergency landing and maintain 60 KIAS +5 -0 until round out. 
  4. Go around if not established in a stabilized approach within 200 feet AGL. (DFGAP) 
  5. Always land within 400 feet of the desired touch down spot (at least 50’ past the  numbers). 
  6. Always land on the main wheels and on the centerline with no side drift. 
  7. If performing a Touch and GO, the nose wheel should not touch the runway. If  the nose wheel touches you need to do a full stop or stop and go. 

Use go-around technique (Throttle, flaps, carburetor heat) and initiate the GO  portion early enough to obtain 500’ AGL by the end of the runway. 

  1. Land at airports with runways that are ________ (3500’) paved useable. 

HAVE RESPECT FOR THE SURFACE WINDS and USE LOWER LIMITS IN  AN LSA: 

  • Fly only when steady surface winds are forecast to remain below ____  (23 kts)
  • Make a powered approach on gusty days, adding 5 knots to my  approach speed. 
  • Use an approach speed of 1.3 x Vso but never less than 55 knots. On gusty days, fly only when the peak gusts are less than ____ (6kts) 
  • When there is a crosswind, limit me to ____ (12 kts with 30-degree x wind, 7 kts with 60 degree x-wind and 6 kts with 90 degree x-wind. Use lower limits for narrow 75’ runways. 
  • Do GPA (Ground Proximity Awareness) training with a direct  crosswind during my BFR. Always slip into the crosswind. 
  • When flying LSAs on calm days, slow to 55 KIAS on short final. 11. Use extra caution when the aircraft has just come out of the maintenance shop. 
  1. To fly into large airports with full services, even if it requires a slightly longer  drive. 
  2. Always shut the engine when loading and unloading passengers. 14. Plan my flights so as not to be landing into the sun. 
  3. Fly only when the temperature-dew point spread is greater  than_____ (5) degrees F, ________ (10) degrees F at dusk.  
  4. Use extra caution at night.  

I will only fly on bright moonlight nights when the visibility exceeds_____ (10)  miles and the temperature dew point spread exceeds ____________ (12)  degrees. 

I will always keep ground lights in sight.  

I will never takeoff on an overcast night towards the open sea or rural  farmland. 

I will fly into airports I have recently flown into during the daytime. I will always use the VASI to assist my night landings. 

I will only fly into airports with____ (4000’) runways that are___ (100’) wide. I will reduce my wind limits by ______ (5) knots at night. 

I will carry _____ (2) two accessible flashlights. 

  1. Avoid thunderstorms by 10 to 30 miles, depending on intensity of storms. 
  2. Practice slow flight regularly and only practice Departure Stalls with a CFI on  board.
  3. Before each flight: 
  • Be mentally and physically alert. 
  • Verify that the visibility will exceed _______ (5) miles ________ (4) miles with GPS. 
  • Assure my flight can be made with a minimum obstacle clearance of ______ (1000’) for the entire route. 
  • Look at satellite weather photos and observe isobar spacing in order to  properly determine current and forecast winds.  
  • Have a good night’s sleep whenever I am flying the next day. To limit  myself to one social drink the night before a flight and honor the 8 hours  from bottle to throttle rule. 
  1. Continually to ask myself: “Should I be here?" “Do I have a solid Gold Out?” 
  2. Limit myself to ______ (2) different makes and model aircraft that I have read   the POH from cover to cover. 
  3. I will not attempt over-night flights until I have made ______ (25) one day x-c trips. 
  4. I will never become airborne at a speed of less than 45 knots. 24. 
  5. I will never to allow my passengers to cause me to violate my PLC. 
  6. I will always ground my plane prior to re-fueling and never de-fuel my plane  myself. 

Signed _________________________________  

Date _______________ CFI ______________ Revised August 2022


Appendix B 

AIRCRAFT CHECK OUT MINIMUMS 

All Renters must have completed an appropriate Limitations Exam prior to  renting any aircraft. This exam must have been reviewed logged in the customers FSP  account by the CFI performing the Check-Out Flight. A Personal Limitations Check List  must be completed by each renter and updated as the renters proficiency changes and  he/she feels their personal minimums should be changed. This PLC must be reviewed  with a Piston Aviation instructor and a copy kept on file at Mid Island. A Rental Agreement must  be signed and kept on file at Piston Aviation. A new agreement will be filled out for each  extended rental listing minimums and destinations.  

All Renters must have received a current Annual Flight Review in the aircraft they wish  to rent. This will be logged in the customers FSP account.  

VFR Pilots: All Check out flights must cover a minimum of the following flight  maneuvers to the current PTS or ACS of that airmen’s certificate. (Slow Flight, Stalls,  Emergency Operations, & 3 Takeoffs and Landings)  

IFR Pilots: All check out flights must cover a minimum of the same procedures as  required to be performed for an Instrument Proficiency Check as outlined in the current  Instrument Rating ACS.  

1) ALL FIXED PITCH AIRCRAFT  

  1. Private Pilot or better 
  2. Dual check-out, as described above  

2) COMPLEX and HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRCRAFT  

  1. Pilot must have a minimum of 30 hours PIC, post Private Certificate prior to beginning check-out.  
  2. Minimum 5 hours dual PLUS 3 hours ground 

3) FOR ALL AIRCRAFT 

  1. If a pilot is instrument rated, it is his/her responsibility to comply with FAR  61.57 (E1) and FAR 61.57 (E2) regarding recent instrument experience  

4) Check-out minimums can only be reduced by the Chief Flight Instructor or the  General Manager ONLY 

5) All FIXED pitch:  

  1. Private Pilot or better must have made a minimum of 3 touch and goes  within the past 90 days, in the aircraft he/she wishes to rent 

 6) HIGH PERFORMANCE AND COMPLEX AIRCRAFT 

  1. A. Pilots must have made a minimum of 3 touch and goes within the past 60   days in the aircraft they wish to rent. 

7) For all aircraft: NIGHT QUALIFICATIONS 

A pilot must perform 3 takeoffs and landing to a FULL STOP in the category and  class of aircraft (ie: SEL,MEL) to be used, (with an instructor) before night use will  be permitted. This currency must be maintained every 60 days.  

A flight with a Mid Island CFI will be required if currency minimums have not  been met. 

A current credit card must be on file prior to all rentals

 

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Signed by Joe Ord
Signed On: February 27, 2024


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Document name: Piston Aviation LLC Operations Manual and Contract
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August 12, 2022 2:57 am CDTPiston Aviation LLC Operations Manual and Contract Uploaded by Joe Ord - joe@flypiston.com IP 172.59.169.140